Density m v D
If substance "X" has a density of 6.0 g/cm3 and the substance is divided into 6 parts. Now, what is the density of each new piece of substance "X"? Circle the correct answer. • A) 36.0 g/cm3 • B) 1.0 g/cm3 • C) 3.0 g/cm3 • D) The density remains the same.
A substance has a density of 8.0 g/cm3. Pressure is applied to the substance, compressing its size. Its density recalculated. What is the new recorded density? Circle the correct answer • 1.6 g/cm3 • B) 8.6 g/cm3 • C) 4.0 g/cm3 • D) The density remains the same
Profiles #’s 58-61
Weather Variables Temperature Pressure Humidity Wind Precipitation
Converting Temperature 140°F = 250 K 68°F 90°C = -10°C = 330 K = 110°C = -4°F = 128°F = 55°C
At what temperature can the air hold the most water vapor? • 20°C • 10°C • 5°C • 0°C Why?
Dewpoint • The closer the dewpoint temperature gets to the air temperature, the great the chance of precipitation • 100% Saturation of Water Vapor = temperature at Dewpoint
Find the relative humidity when the dry-bulb temperature is 14°C and the wet-bulb temperature is 9°C. A student used a sling psychrometer to determine the relative humidity. The relative humidity was 65% and the dry bulb temperature was 10°C. What was the wet-bulb temperature?
What is the dew-point temperature when the dry-bulb temperature is 16°C and the wet-bulb temperature is 11°C?
Cloud Formation • Evaporation causes water (l) to turn into a gas (g) • Warm air rises? (Why?) • Expands and cools • Reaches the dew point temperature (100% saturation) • Condensation occurs on condensation nuclei– A cloud is formed! • Precipitation can occur when droplets collect and get large enough and fall due to gravity!
Isobars = points of equal pressure. Closer the isobars stronger/faster the wind! Naming Winds from direction they originated from! Winds • Air moves from a High Pressure to a Low Pressure. • As temperature increases, pressure decreases P T
High Pressure System • Also known as an ANTICYCLONE • Bring cool and dry air with clear skies and stable conditions • Happy Weather • Wind blows out and clockwise! H
Low Pressure System • A.k.a: Mid-latitude cyclone or zone of convergence • Associated with changeable weather, cloudy skies, and precipitation. • Produces unsettled weather conditions. • Low = Lousy Weather
Specific Heat • The higher the specific heat, the more energy required to increase the temperature of that object. • Water (in all 3 states) takes longer to heat up than solids. Which would take longer to heat up—a glacier or a lake?
Winds curve to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in Southern Hemisphere
Air Masses cA Temperature (Very cold, Cold, Warm) Moisture (Dry vs. Wet)
A Moving Air Mass FRONT • Cold Front: Thunderstorm, heavy precipitation, forces warm front up, quick and brings high pressure system • Warm Front: Steady precipitation, wispy clouds, rises above the cold front. Brings low pressure system Occluded: large areas of rain and unsettled weather. Stationary: prolong bad weather
In the Mid-Latitudes, weather moves from West to East (NORTHEAST)
Climate Latitude, Altitude, Mountain Ranges, Large Bodies of Water, Ocean Currents, Storm Tracks…
Latitude and Insolation High Latitudes Lower Temperatures Lower Angles of Insolation Low Latitudes Higher Temperatures Higher Angles of Insolation Temperature Latitude Angle of Insolation Latitude
Large Bodies of Water- moderate coastal climates Moderate climates = Warmer Winters Cooler Summers Why Specific Heat!
Mountain Ranges Hawaiian Advertisement “Every Hawaiian island has a leeward side and a windward side. The leeward side faces South or West and is hot, dry, and sunny. The windward side faces North or East and is moderate, lush, and green. There are drawbacks and benefits to both.Because the leeward side has less rain, it is less green. So, think beach. The windward side is where you'll find the majority of waterfalls and lush jungle. If your vacation is all about the beach, the lee side is for you ... and air conditioning is a real plus.Since the windward side receives the tradewind flow, it is cooler. If your accommodations do not provide air conditioning, it's because it isn't needed. The windward side offers the best of both worlds. Lovely beaches, warm rivers and thick, lush rainforest. There's more cloud cover and occasional rain, but the majority of the rainfall is at night. First consider what you want to do, and then determine whether it's the leeward or windward for you. Of course, in Hawaii, the other side of the island is never far away.” http://www.bestplaceshawaii.com/tips/hints/windward_leeward.html
Porosity • Percentage of empty space • Does not depend on particle size!
Permeability • Ability to flow through ground material, pores must be connected (or else there will be pooling) • As particle size increases, permeability increase. • Cracks and holes can increase permeability!
Capillarity • Upward movement of water through the ground. Capillarity increases with a decrease in particle size!