Regents Review Nationalism
Nationalism Nationalism- Pride in one’s country Common: language, customs and traditions. Nationalism unifies people.
French Revolution • Ignited a spirit of nationalism by declaring each government should be based on the will of the people. • Napoleon’s conquests further inspired nationalist resentment against the French. • Congress of Vienna failed to take nationalism into account. Many Europeans not united. Others live under foreign rule.
Italian Unification • Mazzini called for unification of Italy. • Cavour- The Prime Minister of Sardinia-Piedmont and the architect of Italian unification. • Garibaldi- Leader of the “Red Shirts”- gained the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. • 1860 Italy was unified.
German Unification • Originally Prussia (strongest German state). • Otto von Bismarck- “ Blood and Iron” • Three successful wars against Denmark, Austria and France. • Unified in 1871
Ottoman Empire • Nationalism was widespread • Difficulties governing different nationalities grew. • Serbs, Greeks and Romanians all gained independence during the 19th century.
India • 1885- Indian National Congress formed • 1906- Muslims break away- form The Muslim League. • Gandhi- Nationalist leader.
World War I • Rivalries between France, Britain, Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia. • Austria-Hungary many ethnic groups. • Serbia wanted independence from Austria. • France wanted revenge on Germany for Franco-Prussian War (Treaty of Frankfort).
World War II • Germany wants to regain pride and prestige. • Revenge for the Treaty of Versailles. • Hitler wanted to united all Germans. • Wants Austria- Hitler was born there.
Africa • Difficulty developing nationalism. • Africans didn’t have nationalism, rather tribalism (created by geography and Europeans). • Pan-Africanism- movement to unify all Africans.