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Regents Review

Regents Review

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Regents Review

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  1. Regents Review Day 3 Unit 5: Photosynthesis and RespirationUnit 6: Cell Reproduction

  2. Chlorophyll molecules in chloroplasts capture light energy from the sun to power the process of photosynthesis • Photosynthesisconverts inorganic molecules (CO2 and Light Energy) into organic molecules (Glucose) • Chlorophyll is a green pigment because it reflects green light waves and absorbs all other types of light

  3. Carbon Dioxide gas is consumed in photosynthesis, while oxygen gas is a waste product produced in photosynthesis • Plants use Carbon Dioxide from animalsand animals use oxygen from plants • Both animals and plants can use the glucose created during photosynthesis as a food source, which is converted to ATP during cell respiration

  4. Glucose is the first stable product of photosynthesis and serves as a food source within cells • Plants are considered autotrophsbecause they produce glucose (sugar) • Animals are considered heterotrophs because they get their food from other sources

  5. Stomatesmaintain homeostasis in leaves by regulating gas exchange and water loss in plants • Stomates are openings on the lower surface of a plant leaf • Guard cells control the opening and closing of each stomata

  6. Cellular respiration is the process of forming ATP from glucose within cells • Occurs in the Mitochondria • Glucose is broken down, using oxygen, to form 36 ATP, the energy source for the cell

  7. If oxygen is NOT present, the cell will go through fermentation, which only generates 2 ATP per molecule of glucose • Fermentation in animal cells creates lactic acid and in plant cells creates alcohol • Aerobic respiration (36 ATP) is more efficient than anaerobic respiration (2 ATP)

  8. Carbon Dioxide is the waste gas produced in cellular respiration • Oxygen is used and carbon dioxide is released • Plants can then recycle this excess CO2 waste during photosynthesis

  9. All organisms carry on respiration to breakdown glucose and produce ATP energy • Plants carry out both respiration andphotosynthesis • Animals carry out only respiration

  10. AsexualReproduction is a form of reproduction that requires only one parent and the offspring are genetically identical to the parent • In single celled organisms is used for reproduction = offspring are identical • In multicellular organisms is for growth and repairof damaged cells

  11. Cell division is a form of reproduction that occurs in stages • Interphase (G1, S, & G2) is the resting stage, the cell grows, and DNA is replicated • Mitosis is the division of the nucleus into two identical nuclei • Cytokinesisis the division of the cytoplasm, creating two new cells

  12. Mitosis involves a diploid (2n) cell dividing into two identical daughter cells • Stages of mitosis = Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase • Two new cells are geneticallyidentical • Ex. If Parent has 8 chromosomes, each offspring will have 8 chromosomes • Used to repair damaged tissues in multicellular organisms

  13. Cancerinvolves body cells that divide uncontrollably by mitosis

  14. Sexual Reproductionis a form of reproduction that requires two parents (sperm and egg) and creates offspring that are similar but NEVER the same as the parents

  15. Meiosis is the process of producing 4 haploid (n) cells from one diploid (2n) cell, each cell contains ½ of the genetic information of the original cell • Human males produce 4 haploid sperm cells • Human females produce one haploid egg and three polar bodies • Four new cells are genetically similar to the parent • Ex. If Parents body cell has 8 chromosomes, each gamete will have 4chromosomes

  16. Meiosis is one of the factors responsible for producing variation among the gametes produced by an organism • Crossing-over – chromosomes switch pieces of DNA with each other • Independent Assortment - chromosomes independently line up during cell division and then separate into different gametes

  17. Fertilization – sex cells combine (sperm and egg) to create a zygote which has ½ of the genetics information from the mom and ½ of the information from the dad.

  18. New individuals of an existing species are produced through the process of reproduction • Only members of the same species can successfully reproduce

  19. DNA mutations and chromosomal abnormalities may be passed on to the next generation if they are located in cells that produce gametes (sperm & eggs) • May lead to the formation of new genes in a species • Most mutations are harmful • Some are beneficial and will lead to the formation of a new species as the changes build up over thousands of years