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Chapter 17: Revolution and Enlightenment (1550-1800). Section 1: The Scientific Revolution. Causes of the Scientific Revolution “Natural Philosophers” – medieval scientists – Aristotle Impact of the Renaissance Greek and Latin languages Ptolemy, Archimedes, and Plato

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slide3

Causes of the Scientific Revolution

    • “Natural Philosophers” – medieval scientists – Aristotle
    • Impact of the Renaissance
      • Greek and Latin languages
        • Ptolemy, Archimedes, and Plato
      • New Technology and Mathematics
        • Ships - trade
      • New instruments
        • Telescope and microscope
        • Printing press
      • Searching for scientific discoveries
      • James Cook
        • chronometer
        • scurvy
      • Francois Viete
          • foundation for the invention of Trigonometry
      • Simon Stevin
          • decimal system
      • John Napier
          • table of logarithms
      • Study of mathematics
      • Nicolas Copernicus, Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei, and Isaac Newton Scientific Revolution
        • With the development of algebra, geometry and trigonometry
slide4

Scientific Breakthroughs

      • Ptolemaic System
        • Geocentric
        • “prime mover”
      • Nicolas Copernicus
        • On Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
        • Heliocentric
      • Johannes Kepler
        • Kepler’s First Law
      • Galileo Galilei
        • The Starry Messenger
      • Isaac Newton
        • Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (Principia)
        • “World Machine”
    • Breakthroughs in Medicine
      • Galen – Greek Physician
      • Revolution in Medicine:
        • Andreas Vesalius and William Harvey
    • Breakthroughs in Chemistry
      • Robert Boyle
      • Antoine Lavoisier
slide5

Women’s Contributions

    • Margaret Cavendish
      • Received a traditional female education – no science
      • Wrote a number of works on scientific matters
    • Maria Winkelmann
      • Astronomer - her husband Gottfried Kirch
      • Discovered a comet
      • University of Berlin
slide6

Philosophy and Reason

    • Descartes and Rationalism
      • Rene Descartes
      • Discourse on Method
        • “I think therefore I am”
        • Separation of mind and matter
        • Father of Modern Rationalism
    • Bacon and the Scientific Method
      • Creation of the Scientific Method
        • Francis Bacon
          • Believed the scientific method would benefit science that would benefit industry, agriculture, and trade – and help to control and dominate nature
slide8

Path to the Enlightenment

    • Enlightenment was a philosophical movement Scientific Revolution
      • Reason was the key word for the philosophers
        • Reason, natural law, hope, progress
    • John Locke
    • Essay Concerning Human Understanding
      • tabula rasa
    • Isaac Newton
      • “World Machine
      • Enlightenment thinkers
slide9

Ideas of the Philosophers

    • Intellectuals of the Enlightenment were known as Philosophe
    • Role of Philosophy
        • “applies himself to the study of society with the purpose of making his kind better and happier”
        • Use reason and facts
    • Montesquieu
        • Charles-Louis de Secondat, the baron de Montesquieu
          • The Sprit of the Laws
            • Scientific Method
            • 3 basic kinds of governments:
            • Three Branches
            • Separation of Powers
            • Checks and Balances
      • Francois-Marie Arouet – simply know as Voltaire
        • Treatise on Toleration
        • “all men are brothers under God”
        • Promoted Deism
      • Denis Diderot
        • Encyclopedia, or Classified Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trades
slide10

New Social Sciences

    • Social Sciences
    • Smith on Economics
      • Physiocrats
        • individuals were free to pursue their own economic self-interest,
        • Laissez-faire– (to let people do what they want)
      • Adam Smith
        • The Wealth of Nations – the state should not interfere in economic matters
          • Role of government
      • CesareBeccaria
        • On Crimes and Punishment
        • “Is it not absurd, that the laws, which punish murder, should, in order to prevent murder, publicly commit murder themselves?”
slide11

The spread of Ideas

    • The social Contract
      • Jean-Jacques Rousseau
        • Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind
        • The Social Contract
        • Emile
    • Women’s Rights
      • Mary Wollstonecraft
        • A Vindication of the Rights of women
    • The Growth of Reading
      • 18th century growth of publishing and the reading public
      • Development of magazines and newspapers
        • First daily newspaper was printed in London in 1702
    • The Salon
      • Salons– drawing rooms of the wealthy upper class’s houses
    • Religion in the Enlightenment
      • Europeans remained devoutly Catholic
      • Protestant Churches developed but were weak
      • Methodism- John Wesley
      • Gave the lower and middle class
slide13

Enlightenment and Absolutism

    • Philosophes believed in Natural rights for all people:
      • Equality before the law
      • Freedom of Religious worship
      • Freedom of speech
      • Freedom of the press
      • Right to assemble, hold property and to pursue happiness
    • Enlightened rulers
    • Enlightened Absolutism
      • New type of monarch
        • But did they really change?
slide14

Prussia: Army Bureaucracy

    • Fredrick William I
      • Highly efficient Bureaucracy
      • Civil Servants
      • Nobility
    • Fredrick William II (Fredrick the Great)
      • Educated
      • Voltaire
      • Dedicated ruler
      • Nobility
      • Limited reforms
      • Enlightenment reforms
slide15

The Austrian Empire

    • largest and most powerful Empires
    • Difficult to rule
    • Maria Theresa
      • Inherited the throne in 1740
      • Worked to control the empire
    • Joseph II
      • Most of the reforms failed
  • Russian Empire
    • Catherine the Great
      • Peter the Great
        • Six successors
        • Peter III
      • Catherine II Catherine the Great
      • Enlightenment reforms
        • Denis Diderot
        • Nobility
        • Rebellion led by Yemelyan Pugachov
slide16

The Seven Years’ War

    • Austrian Succession
      • Charles VI
      • Maria Theresa
      • Fredrick II of Prussia
      • Austrian Silesia
      • France -Prussia and Great Britain - Austria
      • The war of Austrian Succession (1740 – 1748)
        • 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle(1748)
        • Silesia
    • The War in Europe
      • Change of alliances
      • 1756 – 1763 The Seven Years’ War:
        • War – Europe, India and North America
        • Silesia
    • The War in India
      • Great Britain and France
      • Treaty of Paris 1763
    • The War in North America
      • British and French Colonies – Trade
      • French and Indian War
      • Treaty of Paris
slide17

Enlightenment and the Arts

    • Architecture
      • Versailles (Louis XIV)
      • Unique Architectural Style
      • Balthasar Neumann
      • Church of the Fourteen Saints
      • Palace of Prince-bishop Wurzburg
    • Art
        • Baroque and neoclassical styles
        • 1730’s – Rococo
        • Rococo Style
          • Emphasized
          • Highly secular
        • Antonie Watteau
          • Embarkation for Cythera
        • Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
          • Fresco painting
          • Allegory of the Planets and Continents
slide18

Music

      • Johann Sebastian Bach
        • Mass in B Minor
      • George Frederic Handel
        • Messiah
      • Franz Joseph Hayden
        • The Creation and The Seasons
      • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
          • The Marriage of Figaro
          • The Magic Flute
          • Don Giovanni
  • Literature
    • Henry Fielding – English writer
      • The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling