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Main Ideas • 1550-1800 • - Ideas laid the foundation for a modern worldview based on rationalism and secularism • - Enlightenment intellectuals advocate individual rights, paving the way for the rise of democracy • - Man’s concept of his place in the universe changes • - New philosophies bring about social change
Background • “Natural Philosophers” did not make observations but relied on ancient authorities (especially Aristotle). This slowly began to change as • Technical problems stimulated scientific activity • Printing Press spread new ideas
What’s Changing? • Systematic doubt • Sensory Verification/Empiricism • Separation of Sciences/specialization • view of the “clockwork” universe
3 Universes (Two of which could get you burned at the stake)
Ptolemaic Universe • geocentric- Earth centered • universe is a series of concentric spheres • the spheres move around the Earth
Copernican Universe • Heliocentric- sun centered • believed the sun contained God • Humans are no longer the “center” of the universe
Copernicus was a mathematician, astronomer, physician, classical scholar, translator, Catholic cleric, jurist, governor, military leader, and economist. Astronomy was just a hobby for him…….and he changed the world through it!
Keplerian Universe • Heliocentric- sun centered • paths of orbit are elliptical instead of circular • perfectly predicted planetary motions
Galileo Galilei • Provided the Empirical discoveries that clinched the Copernican-Keplerian view of the universe • used the telescope to systematically study the heavens, realizing the moon was not gaseous (saw mountains), and discovering planets (moons) orbiting Jupiter • was charged with heresy by the Catholic church
Number Systems Calculate this: MDMCXLVII x CCCLXXIII Exactly. - Roman numerals were difficult to deal with - The adoption of Arabic numerals (which were actually Hindu) in the Middle Ages enabled the calculations which led to Ptolemy’s model being overthrown
Rene Descartes Philosopher, Mathematician, Tutor, Mercenary, And……….
Descartes’ Ideas • Descartes’ “demon”- How do you know a demon is not tricking you into believing this is all real? • Cogito Ergo Sum- “I think therefore I am” • - the only thing man can really be sure of is his existence • Dualism- mind vs. matter • Reason=chief form of knowledge= Rationalism
Newton • Published Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (Principia Mathematica) • Defined three laws of motion that governed the universe • Universal law of gravitation= every object in the universe is attracted to another object by gravity (this explains the elliptical orbits of the planets) • Invented calculus (along with Leibniz) • ***BY THE WAY, IS MATH INVENTED OR DISCOVERED?***
Francis Bacon • Philosopher Francis Bacon most responsible for Scientific Method • He emphasized inductive reasoning – making generalizations about nature from observation & experiments organized to test a hypotheses (educated guess)
The Enlightenment • 18th century philosophical movement built on Scientific revolution • Philosophical Characteristics: • - The universe is fundamentally rational, that is, it can be understood through the use of reason alone • - Truth can be arrived at through empirical observation, the use of reason, and systematic doubt • - Human society is governed by natural laws just like the Newtonian physical universe • - Human beings can be improved through education and the development of their rational facilities • - Religious doctrines have no place in the understanding of the physical and human worlds