THE AGE OF ABSOLUTISM (1550-1800). Absolutism. Form of monarchical power when a ruler has a complete authority over the government and lives of the people Two types of A.: 1. Ruler 2. Ruler + Chief Minister A. took place in: Spain, France, Prussia, Russia, Austria .
2. Ruler + Chief Minister
Louis XIII became king when Henry VII died
Louis was sickly
Cardinal Richelieu was chosen as his adviser
The edict of Nantes gave the Huguenots certain religious freedoms
They lived in fortified cities
Making a strong central government would be difficult
Richelieu attacked the cities
After a year the Huguenots asked for peace
Richelieu then took away certain rights in the fortified cities
He strengthened the authority of the intendants
They took the administrative and financial power for governors and military leaders and gave it to the king
Starting as a Protestant rebellion in Prague, it was a great opportunity to strengthen France
Richelieu worked to keep the war going and keep France out
Other countries became weak while France stayed strong
France eventually joined the war
The war ended with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648
France and their allies had accomplished most of their goals
The Sun King
France's Sun King
Longest reign in European history (1643-1715).
During this time he brought absolute monarchy to its height
Established a glittering court at Versailles
Fought most of the other European countries in four wars.
Had the palace built and moved the government there
Financial strain on France
He believed in the divine right of kings
Used the palace for control
Had the most important nobles live there to keep an eye on them
They could only advance by gaining his favor
He adopted the sun name because the rays reached far and wide like his power
Absolute power to him meant he made all of the decisions
He was directly involved with the French government
Advisers worked under his direct supervision
One of the best was
Louis XIV believed Huguenots hurt French unity.
Did away with Edict of Nantes.
More than 200,000 protestants fled France rather than become Catholic.
Their loss weakened France’s power.
Louis XIV increased power of military. Most powerful army in Europe by 1700s. 400,000 strong.
Believed France’s power rested upon its natural borders. Pyrenees Mtns., English Channel, Med. Sea, Alps.
Next he wanted the land up to the Rhine River.
Settled in areas of present-day Canada.
Settled colonies in Haiti and other West Indian islands, Asia, and parts of India.
Settled at mouth of Mississippi River. Louisiana is named for Louis XIV
France became main power in Europe.
In 1682, Peter became czar at age of 10.
Ruled until 1725.
He wanted to make Russia more like Western Europe.
Russia was landlocked
He needed to increase power to take coastal land from the Turks.
Toured Western Europe to create an alliance against the Turks.
He failed, but learned a lot.
Influenced by France, he improved army and weaponry.
Fought Sweden 1700-1721.
Gained territory on the east coast of the Gulf of Finland giving access to Baltic Sea.
Built a new city in this area named St. Petersburg.
Moved the capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg.
St. Petersburg expected to be a model of the westernizing of Russia.
This progressive city was Peter the Great’s “ Window on the West.”
Reformed the government
Became ruler of very strong central government.
Controlled the Orthodox Church.
Peter’s new system
An individual noble’s rank depended on the performance of government service.
Czar granted large estates and thousands of serfs to nobles.
Increased the overall number of serfs.
Poor condition for serfs.
Nobles served king to stay in his good graces for reward
Angered the nobles. Made most powerful live in St. Petersburg and spend time at court where he could watch them.
Angered the Church. Tried to control clergy.
Increased Russian military power. Modeled after France.
Increased power of Czar. Made Czar the Absolute Ruler.
Failed to completely westernize Russia
Expanded Russian territory to the Baltic Sea
Tudor dynasty reigned from 1485-1603.
Henry VII believed in divine right, but valued Parliament and maintained good relationships.
Elizabeth I was popular and successful thanks to good Parliamentary relations.England (The Tudors & Parliament)
He was condemned as tyrant, traitor, and public enemy, and beheaded.
1st time in history that a monarch had been tried and executed by his own people.
Sent clear message that in England, no ruler could claim absolute power and ignore the rule of law.Execution of King Charles
Declared England a republic called the Commonwealth, which was led by Oliver Cromwell. Enforced strict military rule.
Under the Commonwealth, Puritans replaced the Church of England. Strict piety.
After Cromwell died, Puritans lost their grip on England.The Commonwealth
Unlike Charles II, he angered Parliament and attempted to restore Catholic Church.
Parliament invited his Protestant daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange to become rulers of England.
When they arrived, James fled to France. Non-violent overthrow known as the Glorious Revolution.James II, William & Mary