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Revolution and Enlightenment

Revolution and Enlightenment

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Revolution and Enlightenment

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  1. Revolution and Enlightenment The Scientific Revolution

  2. Background to Revolution • Medieval scientists only relied on ancient authorities, Aristotle, for knowledge. 14 & 15 hundreds forced changes in views. • Renaissance humanists studied newly discovered works of Ptolemy and Plato who disagreed with Aristotle and others. • How much weight can a ship hold? This stimulated scientific activity. Telescope and microscope invented. Printing press helped spread ideas. • Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Newton and others developed new theories

  3. Revolution in Astronomy • Born in 2nd century, Ptolemy was greatest astronomer of time. Medieval philosophers constructed geocentric model of universe called Ptolemaic system. Motionless Earth in center. • Matched teaching of the church

  4. Copernicus of Poland, 1543, thought heliocentric more accurate • Many rejected • All human knowledge might be called into question • Kepler supported view and each planet had own special orbit Johannes Kepler Copernicus

  5. Galileo, Italian scientist, first to make regular observations with telescope • Got into trouble with Catholic Church since it contradicted idea of Bible. Most scientists however sided with Galileo. • 1633 tried for his ideas and forced to recant

  6. Scientific Method • People concerned about how to best understand physical universe. FrancisBacon created this method. • Emphasized arriving at conclusions using inductive reasoning, or making generalizations from particular observations and experiments organized to test hypotheses • Believed science was to give human kind new discoveries and power to serve human purpose by conquering “nature in action”

  7. Descartes and Reason • Rene Descartes, French philosopher, asserted he can rationally be sure of only one thing- his own existence • Bacon and Rene Descartes rejected Aristotle • Descartes (day kahrt) emphasized human reasoning to understanding • “I think, therefore I am”, materialworld different from mental world • Father of modern rationalism, reason chief source of knowledge

  8. Isaac Newton, Englishman, mathematics professor at Cambridge University • Universal law of gravitation: everyobject is attracted to every otherobject by a force called gravity • Created calculus • Same force helps control the planets • Ideas dominated until Einstein’s theory of relativity

  9. Boyle Vesalius Medicine and Chemistry • Late Middle Ages, ideas of medicine still dominated by Greek Galen (2nd century). Views on anatomy wrong due to using animals • 16th century based on work of Andreas Vesalius. Dissected human bodies as a professor of surgery at University of Padua • William Harvey showed heart center of blood’s circulation, showed same blood runs through veins and arteries with complete circuit of body • Robert Boyle, chemist, Boyle’s Law about gases- volume of gas varies with pressure exerted on it • 18th century Antoine Lavoisier, founder of modern chemistry made system of naming chemical elements

  10. Antoine Lavoisier William Harvey

  11. Ambroise Pare, French physician, ointment for preventing infection and closing wounds with stitches • Dutch inventor Anthony van Leeuwenhoek perfected microscope and first to see cells and microorganisms

  12. Women and Origins of Modern Science • Margaret Cavendish, criticized belief that humans, through science, were maters of nature • Maria Winkelmann, astronomer, assisted husband- famous Prussian astronomer Gottfried Kirch, she discovered a comet • 17th century most people thought scholarship conflicted with domestic roles women were expected to fulfill