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Enlightenment and Revolution

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  1. Enlightenment and Revolution

  2. Enlightenment

  3. Enlightenment • A philosophical movement of the 18th century where logic scrutinized long-held doctrines and traditions • Result of the Scientific Revolution • Advocated the reason and thinking • Looked especially at government • People would meet and discuss ideas in salons

  4. Locke vs. Hobbes Locke Hobbes English People naturally live in anarchy Social contract People give up all freedoms (except to protect life) for safety • English • Humans have basic rights • Life • Liberty • Property • “blank slate” at birth

  5. Baron de Montesquieu • Limited government • Separation of powers • Checks and balances • How is this different from absolutism?

  6. Voltaire and Rousseau Voltaire Rousseau French People are born good but society makes them bad Government based on popular sovereignty Distrusted reason • French • Criticized government for • Intolerance • Suppression of freedom

  7. Legacy of the Enlightenment • Human Rights • Limited Government • Trust reason • There are moral and natural laws • Documents protecting freedoms

  8. English Civil War

  9. Houses of Parliament House of Lords House of Commons Burgesses Dominated by Puritans Wanted more religious reform in England Argued with the crown • Nobles • Sympathetic to the crown

  10. Charles I • Son of James I • Anglican • Thought the monarchy should have more power • Needed funding for agenda • Parliament refused • Parliament sent the Petition of Rights • Dismissed Parliament

  11. Scottish Rebellion • Charles I needed money to defeat the Scots • British defeated in England • Charles I forced to call Parliament

  12. Long Parliament • 1640-1660 • Parliament met on and off • Little compromise

  13. Irish Rebellion • Parliament wanted control of army • Charles I tried to have them arrested • Start of the English Civil War

  14. Groups of the English Civil War Cavaliers Roundheads Puritans Named after their haircut Led by Oliver Cromwell Wanted a new government • Royalists • Supported Charles I and the monarchy

  15. How the War Was Won • Oliver Cromwell created a “New Model Army” • Defeated Charles I in battle (twice) • Created a Rump Parliament (not legal, but still controlled government) • Abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords

  16. Oliver Cromwell • Became “Lord Protector” of England • Ruled like a dictator • Established religious tolerance • New constitution (first in Europe) • Navigation Act of 1651

  17. “Lord Protector” & English Commonwealth • 1653-1658 • Commonwealth means republic • Oliver Cromwell was the “Lord Protector” • Ruled like a dictatorship • After his death, his son (Richard) ruled England

  18. Charles II • Richard lost the favor of the army • He was forced out • Charles II was restored to the throne • Well-liked by the people, Charles II was known as the “Merry Monarch” • Worked with Parliament to achieve his ends

  19. James II • Son of Charles II • Did not work well with Parliament • Catholic • Married a Catholic princess • People feared having a Catholic heir

  20. Glorious Revolution • William and Mary of Orange were asked to take the English throne • Mary was the daughter of James II • William invaded England with troops • James II fled • Change of government and no bloodshed!!!

  21. Legacies • English Bill of Rights • Limited Government • People should choose who rules them

  22. Mercantilism

  23. Main Idea • The idea that a country’s economic power depends on the amount of gold and silver in its treasury • Which means…?

  24. Examples • British East India Company • Colonies made for the benefit of the mother country • Navigation Acts

  25. American Revolution

  26. Why Revolution? • Colonies left alone for 200 years, then expected to comply with mercantilism • Rights as British citizens had been violated • Britain sent troops • Declaration of Independence

  27. New Government • Articles of Confederation • Constitution • Bill of Rights

  28. Estates of France

  29. 1st Estate- Clergy • Often chosen by the king • Owned land • Paid no taxes • Influenced policy in France • 1% of population

  30. 2nd Estate- Nobility • Most important government jobs • Owned land • Only paid taxes in war (and sometimes not even then) • 2% of the population

  31. 3rd Estate- Peasants, Artisans, Bourgeoisie • Resented the privileges of the aristocracy • Paid most of the taxes in France • Most members were peasants • 97% of the population

  32. Louis XVI • Married to Marie Antoinette (a foreign princess) • Inherited debt from his predecessors • Forced to call the Estates General to find a solution to the economic crisis

  33. France in Trouble • French aid during the American Revolution caused France to go into debt • Financial crisis • Owed 113 million livres • Over 20 trillion by today’s standards • Louis XV borrowed heavily from bankers • Louis XVI tried to tax nobles, but they led riots

  34. Estates General

  35. Tennis Court Oath • Estates General met • Each estate got 1 vote, so the third estate was often outvoted • The representatives of the third estate met in the Tennis Court and invited the other estates to join them • Asked Louis XVI to give each representative a vote • He didn’t respond • They formed the National Assembly

  36. Spread of Revolution

  37. Fall of the Bastille • Bastille was a prison • Represented the power of the monarch • Peasants stormed the Bastille for its weapons

  38. “Great Fear” • Third estate was afraid the aristocracy would try to stop the Revolution • Manor houses and monasteries destroyed • Nobles fled to other countries

  39. Women march on Versailles • Urban women were upset by the price of food • They marched to Versailles and demanded that the monarchs come live in Paris

  40. Constitution of 1791 • Split up France into departments • Limited the power of the king • Land-owning males voted for members of the Legislative Assembly

  41. Death of the King • King Louis XVI plotted with émigrés and foreign powers to stop the revolution • Tried to escape France, but was caught • Sent to the guillotine

  42. National Convention

  43. What was it? • A legislative body elected through universal manhood suffrage

  44. Political Leaders Girondins Jacobins Wanted domination by Paris Liberals Danton Robespierre Marat • Feared domination by Paris • conservatives

  45. Accomplishments • Wanted a “Republic of Virtue” • Opened new schools • Universal elementary education • Wage an price controls • Metric system • New Calendar • New constitution • 500 person lower house • 250 person upper house • 5 directors

  46. Reign of Terror

  47. What happened? • Committee of Public Safety • Guillotined those who opposed the Jacobins • Led by Robespierre and Danton • Both were later sent to the guillotine

  48. Why? • Jacobins wanted more change • Kept people supportive of the Jacobins