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Chapter 1. Introduction. Content. Definition of crystal and mineral What is mineralogy? Major directions of investigation Some preliminary advice. Crystal Homogeneous chemical compound with regular and periodic atomic arrangement Not restricted to minerals - most solid matter:

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chapter 1

Chapter 1

Introduction

content
Content
  • Definition of crystal and mineral
  • What is mineralogy?
  • Major directions of investigation
  • Some preliminary advice
definitions
Crystal

Homogeneous

chemical compound

with regular and periodic atomic arrangement

Not restricted to minerals - most solid matter:

sugar, cellulose, metals, bones, DNA

Mineral

Naturally occurring

chemical compound

Most, but not all, minerals are crystalline

(some exceptions are opal, mercury, amorphous mineral products from radioactive decay)

Definitions
what is mineralogy1
What is mineralogy?
  • The study of minerals
    • Previously - simple definition
    • Today - boundaries opened and overlap other sciences
      • Glaciology – ice (a mineral!)
      • Medicine (biomineralogy) - Apatite, carbonates, oxalates, urates
      • Cement industry – non-natural cement minerals
      • Environmental sciences – minerals formed by waste alterations or contaminated water interactions
    • This course:
      • Rock and ore-forming minerals – small subset of 4000 known minerals
major directions of investigation
Major directions of investigation
  • Main purpose
    • Characterize of properties and chemical compositions
    • Conditions of mineral formation
  • Economically important - define resources & exploration techniques
  • Solution - problems with man-made products

 Relates to crystallography, chemistry, material science, physics – use basic principles

basic mineralogy1
Crystal chemistry

Physical properties

Mineral formation

Crystal growth

Processes on earth surface and in interior

Chemical reactions, influence of T and P

Relationships between structure, composition, properties, habit, conditions of formation

Basic mineralogy
applied mineralogy1
Applied mineralogy
  • Exploration and ore deposits
  • Industrial mineralogy: cement
  • Gemmology
  • Biomineralogy
  • Minerals as health hazards
  • Mineralogical aspects of material science and solid-state physics
advice
Advice
  • Many new & complex concepts – own judgment
  • NB - learn mineral names, composition and uses
  • Useful for practical:
    • Notebook - mineral descriptions
      • Geological occurrence and rock type
      • Features of major minerals that you have studied yourself
        • Name, composition, distinguishing features, application