Tradition and Change in East Asia Ming and Qing Dynasties and their interaction with Europe
The rise of the Ming • Mongols in decline with the death of Kublai Khan, finally overthrown in 1368. • Massive peasant (Red Turban) rebellion led by Hongwu (Zhu Yuanzhang) • Hongwu a peasant who turned Buddhist Monk to survive, brought about a powerful centralized state.
Return to Confucianism • Six ministries atop an elaborate bureaucracy administered by Civil Service Exam. • Empire divided into provinces, districts, and counties. • Villages largely autonomous.
Ming fortifications • While the wall had begun during the Qin age, the wall was largely completed during the Ming. • The most frequently visited parts are Ming contributions.
Ming Restoration • Abandonment of all that was Mongol, names, dress, writings, and politics. A complete restoration of everything Chinese was instituted. • Significant rebirth of Confucianism.
The Politics of Hongwu • Common/orphan origins • Rose in military ranks • Government marked by: suspicion, scorn for pretentious manners of the scholar class, and a deep respect for the past.
Government • Census established (rice taxation) • Mandatory and “replenatory” service • Comparisons to Louis XIV • Forced relocation and family limits for service • Exam system • Eunuch secret police
The Purges • Honwu killed his prime minister and the commander of the armies suspecting a coup. • Purges totaled 100,000 deaths. • Emperor would now handle all tasks—a daunting task indeed.
Use of Eunuchs • Eunuchs were used with increasing frequency due to the paranoid Hongwu and his fear of assassination. • 70,000 were working for the imperial palace by the end of Hongwu’s reign.
Ming Agricultural Revolution • Historians estimate that 1,000,000,000 trees were planted during the Ming Age! Reforestation • Rice and rice paddy changes • Irrigation pumps • Destruction of malaria beds • Land grants
Ming and the World • Ming state outlawed international trade in 1372 • China insisted on a vision of cultural superiority and made visitors acknowledge this.
Emperor Yongle • Arose to power in the wake of the death of Hongwu • Known for his maritime expansion and the Yongle encyclopedia. • His extravagant patronage of a male lover harmed the state
Yongle’s legacy • Champion of overseas exploration under Zheng He.
Zheng He • Reached east coast of Africa and brought back extraordinary goods. (including Islam) • Went against the traditional Ming outlook. Fearing further Mongol assaults, Yongle ordered the expeditions closed.
Further isolation • After Yongle’s death international trade abolished, the amazing fleet of 3500 ships was destroyed, and coastal population moved inland.
Relations with West • Contacts with rest of world • 1514 Portuguese reach China • 1567 Japanese smuggling and Portuguese persistence lead to end of prohibition on foreign trade • 1582 Matteo Ricci, reaches China
Intellectual Surge • Government service the only way to being an elite, so a Confucian surge emerged. • Officials served efficiently and provided stability. • Surge of school building, and the publication of Chinese stories. • Yongle Encylcopedia • Porcelain art • Printing • Textile and Silk
Ming Decline • Population increase • Ming Civil Wars • Emperor Wan Li • Weak Military • Climate changes • Persistent isolation • Revolts • Foolish attacks on Mongols by Ying Zoung • Last Ming Emperor committed suicide.
The arrival of the Manchus • Arrived from Manchuria. • Assisted by Ming generals.
Qing rules • Queue style haircuts as a sign of submission to Manchus • Intermarriage outlawed
Kangxi 1661-1722 • Confucian scholar • Enlightened • Apply Confucian principles to government • “Grand Secretariat” • Quotas • Flood control, irrigation • Patronized schools • Defeated the hated Pirates • Great travels • Complete Library of the Four Treasuries • Similar to Akbar
Kangxi’s Sacred Confucian Edict • Esteem most highly filial piety and brotherly submission, in order to give due importance to the social relations. • Behave with generosity toward your kindred, in order to illustrate harmony and benignity. • Cultivate peace and concord in your neighborhoods, in order to prevent quarrels and litigations • Recognize the importance of husbandry and the culture of the mulberry tree, in order to ensure a sufficiency of clothing and food. • Show that you prize moderation and economy, in order to prevent the lavish waste of your means. • Give weight to colleges and schools, in order to make correct the practice of the scholar. • Extirpate strange principles, in order to exalt the correct doctrine. • Lecture on the laws, in order to warn the ignorant and obstinate. • Elucidate propriety and yielding courtesy, in order to make manners and customs good. • Labor diligently at your proper callings, in order to stabilize the will of the people. • Instruct sons and younger brothers, in order to prevent them from doing what is wrong. • Put a stop to false accusations, in order to preserve the honest and good. • Warn against sheltering deserters, in order to avoid being involved in their punishment. • Fully remit your taxes, in order to avoid being pressed for payment. • Unite in hundreds and tithing, in order to put an end to thefts and robbery. • Remove enmity and anger, in order to show the importance due to the person and life
Qing Conquests • Added vast territory such as Taiwan, conquests in Mongolia and Central Asia fortified the Chinese state, also subdued much of SE Asia.
The Zenith of the Qing • Qianlong: 1736-1795 • An enlightened poet • Actually canceled taxes due to surging profits. • Expanded into the Himalayas • Growth and expansion of trade
Chinese Social Structure • Gentry, commoners, soldiers and “mean people”
Mission of Lord MacCartney • Exemplifies the “middle kingdom” and the insular culture of China.
China compared? • What reasons might explain why China doesn’t experience a revolution in social and scientific thought (Enlightenment) as Europe had?
Ashikaga Shogunate 1338-1573 • Arose in the wake of the Mongol failure to conquer Japan. Japanese ruling class was weakened in its wake (Kamakura Shogunate). • Ashikaga Yoshimitsu
Warring States Period: 1467-1568 • The formation of provincial “castle towns”. • Consolodation of Samurai, similar to that of China—a power grab. • Japan was in effect 260 small countries led by rogue Daimyo. • Came to a close with the Onin War.
Japan’s Three Heroes • Oda Nobunaga (new-buh-nah-ga) • Toyotomi Hideyoshi (hee-deh-yoh-she) • Tokugawa Ieyasu (Ee-aay-yah-suh) • Japanase proverb: “Oda punds the national rice cake, Hideoshi kneads it and in the end Ieyasu sits down and eats it”.
Oda Nobunaga • End Warring States Period, by declaring Japan united under one “sword”. • Rose from obscure poverty to consolidate control of Japan until his assassination in 1582 • Monks of Mt. Hiei • Welcomed Jesuits—disliked Buddhism for political reasons.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi • The most important figure in Japanese history. • Born the homeless son of a peasant. • Unified Japan and extended her dominion over parts of Asia (Korea) • Est. national currency • Nearly unified island’s daimyo
Land survey program • Alternate residence program • Sword hunt for peace • Birth of the four class system: Samurai, Peasants, Artisans, and Merchants
The Tokugawa Age • Japanese children are taught “Ieyasu ate the pie that Nobunaga made and Hideyoshi baked”. • Emerged in 1600 at the battle of Sekigahara (say-key-gah-har-ah) • In other words…he completed the work by the other two notable founders.
Tokugawa Politics • Alterante residence and hostage reforms • Castle building fobidden • Sakoku-closed country
Siege at Osaka • Christian Missionaries and Samurais joined with Ieyasu’s enemies…this ended the gains of Christianity in Japan. • 300,000 converts by 1600. • Ieyasu associated the Samurai war with Christianity • Christianity was ruthlessly oppressed.
Opposing the West • Europeans arriving throughout the Tokugawa Age. • Visitors initially welcomed. • Hideyoshi interested in using European weapons. • Castles built on a European scale
Christianity and trade • Francis Xavier was successful making inroads into Japan. • However, the need for all citizens to owe allegiance to the Pope led Hydeoshi to abolish Christian activities on the islands. • All missionaries exiled by 1612 • Revolts such as the Christian revolt at Kyushu was bloodily suppressed • Dutch treatment…one entrance a year—could remain for 2 months.