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East Asia

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  1. East Asia The Chinese had many important inventions in their time that not only advanced their societies, but also affected countries on a global scale. Inventions like the astrolabe and the compass helped to revolutionize maritime trade and travel. The administration of civil service examinations also was a first, in that it was the first of its kind and served as a model for many future civilizations to come. Prior to the examinations, political office was determined by your parents and whether you were wealthy. With the introduction of these examinations, jobs were given only to those who had the specific skill requirements to handle it. Changes in East Asia include the arrival of new inventions and interaction between foreign peoples. Continuities include civil service examinations which are still used today.

  2. East Asia The Japanese also had scholars of “native learning” that sought to protect Japanese identity with “floating worlds,” which were centers of urban culture and learning. Japanese scholars also eventually began to learn Dutch from merchants and soon, were able to read Dutch books. European art, medicine, and science also influenced Japanese scholars. Changes include their interaction with Dutch merchants. Continuities in Japan were their belief in shoguns and their preservation of their customs and traditions.

  3. Americas and Oceania • In Brazil, which was ruled by the Portuguese, Sugar Mills (engenhos) became a main source of income. Life revolved around these plantations. • Pizarro and Cortes had more advanced weapons than the Inca’s and the Aztecs which gave them an advantage. These included blades made out of steal and gun powder. • Change and Continuity: • Europeans are developing new weapons, while the Latin American civilizations are still using their traditional weapons.

  4. Europe • The printing press made it possible for Martin Luther to spread his ideas. • The “Sun King of France” Louis XIV ordered the construction of roads, and canals. • Cannons and small arms were developed, but were expensive. • The Ptolemaic idea of the universe: the earth was the center of nine spheres which orbited it. (was supported by the Catholic church) • Copernican universe: the sun was the center and all other planets revolved around it. ( faced resistance by the Catholic church. • Galileo: found sunspots, moons of Jupiter, and the theory of velocity of falling bodies. • Newton: mathematical explanations of laws that govern movement of bodies. • Philosophers: Voltaire, Montesquieu, and Locke. The enlightenment period weakened the influence of the church because people could now go to science to answer all their questions. • Change and Continuity: • The Earth centered theory was replaced by the Sun centered theory. • The church began to have less of an influence on people.

  5.  Islamic Empires Ottoman Empire: • Immediately after capturing Constantinople in 1453, the Ottomans completely converted the Hagia Sophia into the Aya Sofya mosque, a crowned jewel of the city. They also built many more beautiful mosques, such as the Suleymaniye. • Ottoman sultans often supported schools and hospitals for their people. • Taqi Al-Din was an extremely prolific engineer. He invented a mechanical, astronomical clock capable of striking an alarm whenever the user specified, the first impluse steam turbine, a six-cylinder water pump, and an observational clock.

  6. Safavid Empire • The Safavids flourished mainly in architecture. • They built famous landmarks such as the Sheikh Lotfallah, Hasht Beheshtm and the Chahar Bagh School. • Took much pride in the building of their houses, baths, schools, bazaars, caravanserai, and squares, which was rooted to Persian origin and influence. • Shah Abbas extensively supported the building of his capital at Isfahan. • Just like the Ottomans, the Safavids also took great care in making sure the most beautiful mosques were built.

  7. Mughal Empire • Famous rulers, such as Jahangir and Shah Jahan, all supported an elaborate court and beautiful architecture, like the Ottomans and the Safavids. • The Mughals supported the arts, especially paintings as well as buildings. • Probably the most famous architectural achievement of the Mughal Empire is the Taj Mahal, which is a mausoleum built by Shah Jahan in memory of his third, beloved wife.

  8. Intelligence and technology in EuropeThe sternpost rudder and two types of sails enabled ships to sail against the winds.The magnetic compass and astrolabeKnowledge of the winds and currents (trade winds north and south of the equator)These advancements allowed European mariners to travel offshore and this resulted in voyages in exploration to the Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Pacific. More knowledge and advancements in technology also made the Columbian exchange possible.

  9. The Protestant reformation encouraged people to read the bible which was now written in vernacular and cheap to buy because of the new printing press. This increased literacy and intelligence in EuropeThe Renaissance brought new art styles and a flood or literature and ideas. People started to think for themselves.During the Scientific Revolution scientists discovered and researched the world around them

  10. Change and Continuity Change - More knowledge of the world’s geography, wind patterns, and advancements in marine technology - The printing press greatly increased literature in Europe - Renaissance brought new ideas -India and China began to fall behind Continuity - Bible is written in vernacular and is widely distributed

  11. Africa The popularity of Islam in Africa eventually led to the development of an Islamic university as well as over 180 religious schools. Africa also reaped the benefits of overseas trade by utilizing the things they needed and the things they didn’t. A continuity of Africa was the continuation of the religious schools that were created. A change in Africa during this time was the development of new inventions from different countries.

  12. Americas and Oceania and Europe • Not much development in America except in agriculture which was the cause of population growth in Europe as a result of the Columbian Exchange. • In Europe there were many great thinkers who contributed much to our current knowledge of science, as well as inventors. • This could be an effect of the isolation of America until this point.