1 / 32

East Asia

East Asia. Big Picture: China. G Problems with nomads (north) Large, filled with resources Influences neighbors R Confucianism Buddhism comes in and out. Big Picture: China. A Continuous civilization Inventions Core of world trade P Dynastic cycle Civil service exams.

Download Presentation

East Asia

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. East Asia

  2. Big Picture: China • G • Problems with nomads (north) • Large, filled with resources • Influences neighbors • R • Confucianism • Buddhism comes in and out

  3. Big Picture: China • A • Continuous civilization • Inventions • Core of world trade • P • Dynastic cycle • Civil service exams

  4. Big Picture: China • E • Agricultural • Public works • Little respect for trade • S • Confucianism • Peasants are poor, but important • Scholar-gentry

  5. Chinese Dynasties • Shang • Zhou • Qin • Han • Sui • Tang • Song • Yuan • Ming • Qing

  6. Shang Dynasty • River valley civilization • Oracle bones • Work with bronze

  7. Zhou Dynasty • Invent Mandate of Heaven and Dynastic Cycle • Essentially feudal system • Expand to Yangtze River

  8. Era of Warring States

  9. Qin Dynasty • Reconquer feudal minor kingdoms • Use legalism • Shi Huangdi • Legacy of standardization

  10. Han Dynasty • True Classical China • Embrace Confucianism • Create civil service exams • Expand empire and trade West

  11. How China Works • Central authority • Appoints local officials, but strong local units keep order • Bureaucracy is large, people pay taxes, follow law, provide labor • Upper class is landholders and bureaucrats • Family is the social order • Stay agricultural

  12. Era of Division

  13. Sui Dynasty • Conquers the nomads • Brings back central bureaucracy

  14. Tang Dynasty • Restores and modifies civil service exams • Conquers northern nomads, Korea, and the west (largest dynasty) • Eventually boots out Buddhism • Links rivers with Grand Canal • Urbanization, trade, women’s rights expand • Tons of new technologies

  15. Song Dynasty • Takes the worst of the Tang features • Overexpandedbureaucracy (higher status) • Embraced Neo-Confucianism • And only Chinese things • Weakens military – consistently losing ground to nomads • Stops trade

  16. Yuan Dynasty • Kublai Khan conquers the Song • No civil service exams, only Mongols in bureaucracy • But, Kubilai had Chinese advisors • Chinese banned from learning Mongol language • Bring in Muslim scholars to supplement Chinese science, which stagnated

  17. Ming Dynasty • Eliminate Mongols • Reinstate civil service exams – scholar-gentry status raises again • Landlords still powerful, came from bureaucratic families • Neo-Confucianism deepens • Trade grows, but invest in land and not manufacturing

  18. Qing Dynasty • Manchu nomads from the north override Ming weakness • Not Chinese, but become Chinese • Adopt Confucianism, bureaucracy, civil service exams • Chinese can serve • Landlords still exploit peasants • Bureaucracy becomes corrupt, ignored public works and Europeans • Opium War, rebellions…collapse

  19. Chinese Civil War • Qing dynasty collapses under pressure of Western interference, rebellions • Nationalist party (Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek) want a Western-style state • A.k.a. Guomindang/Kuomintang • Communist party (Mao Zedong) want communist peasant revolution

  20. Communist Party • Emphasized return to Confucian social values – meaning peasants good, merchants and outsiders bad, collective welfare • Talk about power to the people – killed a lot of people with Mao’s policies

  21. Chinese Civil War • Communists use guerrilla warfare, Nationalists ally with warlords and make gains • Long March: communists escape to the north • Japan invades: force Chinese to fight together • War weakens Nationalist armies and economic bases • Communists gain power, practice • 1949: Nationalists move to Formosa (Taiwan), Communists officially take over China

  22. Communist China • Expand boundaries • Violently redistribute land to peasants • Mao collectivized agriculture, wanted small local factories (Great Leap Forward) • Failed here, too • Pragmatists pushed out Mao after the “Cultural Revolution” which attacked his rivals and bureaucrats • Open economy, but not politics

  23. Major Events • Zhenghe Expeditions • Russo-Japanese War • Opium Wars • Commodore Perry • Meiji Restoration • Boxer Rebellion • May Fourth Movement • Chinese Civil War • WWII • Rape of Nanking • Pearl Harbor • Midway • Hiroshima and Nagasaki • Korean War • Tiananmen Square

  24. Classical Japan • Tribes and farming • Regional states • Create emperor as religious figure • Shintoism • Connection to China

  25. Japan in Tang Times • Borrowed a lot from China, but Buddhists and aristocrats prevented full reforms • Local estates ignored the empire, peasants became serfs (and Buddhists), estates hired samurai, embraced warrior culture

  26. Feudal Japan • Fighting between warlords • Decline in central authority • Less Chinese influence • Feudal lords – shoguns – take power • Daimyos, powerful local landlords, tried to develop economies

  27. Japan in Ming Times • Shoguns overpower daimyos • Imported Western technology (guns) • Tokugawa Shogunate controls daimyos, destroys Buddhist power, and closes Japan to foreign influence

  28. Opening Japan • Commodore Perry shows up with US ships and big guns (1850s) • Forced to open trade ports • Meiji emperor takes over, Meiji Restoration • Abolish feudalism, defeat samurai • Create parliament and bureaucracy • State-led industrialization • Avoid total domination, but still depend on West for technology and resources

  29. Imperial Japan • For resources, take Korea from Russia/China in Sino- and Russo-Japanese Wars • Strong nationalism prevents revolutions despite strains of modernization • Military crept into power, took over with strong response to Depression • Expand into China and Taiwan

  30. Post-War Japan • Westernize and democratize during occupation, eliminate military • Government-business cooperation to promote stability and growth • Major educational expansion provides the engineers, US provides the defense • Huge economic expansion into the 90s

  31. Korea • China conquers it, loses it, conquers it…it’s a cycle • Strongly influenced by China and Buddhism • Almost don’t have their own culture, just mirrors of China • And that’s everything until Unit 5

  32. (South) Korea • Authoritarian but not communist, then conservatively democratic • In 1970s, Korea follows Japan into the high-tech economic world • Create a lot of exports

More Related