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East Asia - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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East Asia
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  1. East Asia

  2. Big Picture: China • G • Problems with nomads (north) • Large, filled with resources • Influences neighbors • R • Confucianism • Buddhism comes in and out

  3. Big Picture: China • A • Continuous civilization • Inventions • Core of world trade • P • Dynastic cycle • Civil service exams

  4. Big Picture: China • E • Agricultural • Public works • Little respect for trade • S • Confucianism • Peasants are poor, but important • Scholar-gentry

  5. Chinese Dynasties • Shang • Zhou • Qin • Han • Sui • Tang • Song • Yuan • Ming • Qing

  6. Shang Dynasty • River valley civilization • Oracle bones • Work with bronze

  7. Zhou Dynasty • Invent Mandate of Heaven and Dynastic Cycle • Essentially feudal system • Expand to Yangtze River

  8. Era of Warring States

  9. Qin Dynasty • Reconquer feudal minor kingdoms • Use legalism • Shi Huangdi • Legacy of standardization

  10. Han Dynasty • True Classical China • Embrace Confucianism • Create civil service exams • Expand empire and trade West

  11. How China Works • Central authority • Appoints local officials, but strong local units keep order • Bureaucracy is large, people pay taxes, follow law, provide labor • Upper class is landholders and bureaucrats • Family is the social order • Stay agricultural

  12. Era of Division

  13. Sui Dynasty • Conquers the nomads • Brings back central bureaucracy

  14. Tang Dynasty • Restores and modifies civil service exams • Conquers northern nomads, Korea, and the west (largest dynasty) • Eventually boots out Buddhism • Links rivers with Grand Canal • Urbanization, trade, women’s rights expand • Tons of new technologies

  15. Song Dynasty • Takes the worst of the Tang features • Overexpandedbureaucracy (higher status) • Embraced Neo-Confucianism • And only Chinese things • Weakens military – consistently losing ground to nomads • Stops trade

  16. Yuan Dynasty • Kublai Khan conquers the Song • No civil service exams, only Mongols in bureaucracy • But, Kubilai had Chinese advisors • Chinese banned from learning Mongol language • Bring in Muslim scholars to supplement Chinese science, which stagnated

  17. Ming Dynasty • Eliminate Mongols • Reinstate civil service exams – scholar-gentry status raises again • Landlords still powerful, came from bureaucratic families • Neo-Confucianism deepens • Trade grows, but invest in land and not manufacturing

  18. Qing Dynasty • Manchu nomads from the north override Ming weakness • Not Chinese, but become Chinese • Adopt Confucianism, bureaucracy, civil service exams • Chinese can serve • Landlords still exploit peasants • Bureaucracy becomes corrupt, ignored public works and Europeans • Opium War, rebellions…collapse

  19. Chinese Civil War • Qing dynasty collapses under pressure of Western interference, rebellions • Nationalist party (Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek) want a Western-style state • A.k.a. Guomindang/Kuomintang • Communist party (Mao Zedong) want communist peasant revolution

  20. Communist Party • Emphasized return to Confucian social values – meaning peasants good, merchants and outsiders bad, collective welfare • Talk about power to the people – killed a lot of people with Mao’s policies

  21. Chinese Civil War • Communists use guerrilla warfare, Nationalists ally with warlords and make gains • Long March: communists escape to the north • Japan invades: force Chinese to fight together • War weakens Nationalist armies and economic bases • Communists gain power, practice • 1949: Nationalists move to Formosa (Taiwan), Communists officially take over China

  22. Communist China • Expand boundaries • Violently redistribute land to peasants • Mao collectivized agriculture, wanted small local factories (Great Leap Forward) • Failed here, too • Pragmatists pushed out Mao after the “Cultural Revolution” which attacked his rivals and bureaucrats • Open economy, but not politics

  23. Major Events • Zhenghe Expeditions • Russo-Japanese War • Opium Wars • Commodore Perry • Meiji Restoration • Boxer Rebellion • May Fourth Movement • Chinese Civil War • WWII • Rape of Nanking • Pearl Harbor • Midway • Hiroshima and Nagasaki • Korean War • Tiananmen Square

  24. Classical Japan • Tribes and farming • Regional states • Create emperor as religious figure • Shintoism • Connection to China

  25. Japan in Tang Times • Borrowed a lot from China, but Buddhists and aristocrats prevented full reforms • Local estates ignored the empire, peasants became serfs (and Buddhists), estates hired samurai, embraced warrior culture

  26. Feudal Japan • Fighting between warlords • Decline in central authority • Less Chinese influence • Feudal lords – shoguns – take power • Daimyos, powerful local landlords, tried to develop economies

  27. Japan in Ming Times • Shoguns overpower daimyos • Imported Western technology (guns) • Tokugawa Shogunate controls daimyos, destroys Buddhist power, and closes Japan to foreign influence

  28. Opening Japan • Commodore Perry shows up with US ships and big guns (1850s) • Forced to open trade ports • Meiji emperor takes over, Meiji Restoration • Abolish feudalism, defeat samurai • Create parliament and bureaucracy • State-led industrialization • Avoid total domination, but still depend on West for technology and resources

  29. Imperial Japan • For resources, take Korea from Russia/China in Sino- and Russo-Japanese Wars • Strong nationalism prevents revolutions despite strains of modernization • Military crept into power, took over with strong response to Depression • Expand into China and Taiwan

  30. Post-War Japan • Westernize and democratize during occupation, eliminate military • Government-business cooperation to promote stability and growth • Major educational expansion provides the engineers, US provides the defense • Huge economic expansion into the 90s

  31. Korea • China conquers it, loses it, conquers it…it’s a cycle • Strongly influenced by China and Buddhism • Almost don’t have their own culture, just mirrors of China • And that’s everything until Unit 5

  32. (South) Korea • Authoritarian but not communist, then conservatively democratic • In 1970s, Korea follows Japan into the high-tech economic world • Create a lot of exports