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Tradition and Change in East Asia. Edo Japan 1450-1750. Sengoku ( “Country at war”) Period. Japan was in perpetual state of warfare during 15 th -16 th Centuries Powerful feudal warlords battled each other for power over the country
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Sengoku (“Country at war”) Period • Japan was in perpetual state of warfare during 15th-16th Centuries • Powerful feudal warlords battled each other for power over the country • Three strong warlords in succession eventually centralized power. • Oda Nobunaga • ToyotomiHideyoshi • TokagawaIeyasu Battle of Kawanakajima
Tokugawa Shogunate (1660-1867 CE) • Upon Hideyoshi’s death, Tokugawa Ieyasu took power. • Third of Japan’s “great unifiers.” • Tokagawa Shoguns main goal was to stabilize rule and prevent a return to civil war in Japan. • Daimyo had functioned as near absolute rulers in their domains. • Tokugawa Ieyasu required daimyo and family to live at Edo Caste TokagawaIeyasu ruled from Edo Castle. Tokagawa ushered in an extended period of peace in Japan
Medieval Japan Social Structure • Emperor-ruled in name only • Shoguns- military ruler- real power • Daimyo – lords of provinces • Samurai were mounted warriors ( medieval “knights”) who served the lords. • Seppuku – ritual suicide if a samurai failed his master • Bushido – code of honor Samurai warrior
Life in Edo • Strict controls from Edo Castle -highly regimented life in Edo Japan • Japanese forbidden from going abroad • Shogun expelled all but Europeans Chinese and Dutch merchants permitted to trade only in port city of Nagasaki ( on an island) • Seki guarded all entrances to city Edo Castle
Tokugawa Shogunate Period • Japan closed off to all trade [except to the Dutch and Chinese]. • The Dutch were restricted to a small island in Nagasaki harbor. • Japanese Christians persecuted and Christianity is forbidden. • The government is centralized with all power in the hands of the shogun. • Domestic trade flourishes. • Towns, esp. castle towns, increase. • Merchant class becomes rich! • New art forms haiku poetry, kabuki theater.
Noh Theatre in Edo Noh flourished under the patronage of the military shogun Ashikaga Classic Noh Theatre is more serious and has elements of Classic Greek Theatre: masks, chorus and dancers Only the elite could study Noh
Bunraku • Famous Japanese Puppetry • Puppet master trains for 10 years • Bunraku ( along with Kabuki) was the common man’s entertainment Unlike marionette puppetry, the omozukai, or main puppeteer, is visible to the audience. Unfortunately, craftsmen who create the puppets and costumes are dying out ; the long apprenticeship necessary to take their place does not appeal to today's young generation.
shamisen Kabuki Theatre • Tradition says it was founded by Okuni, a shrine maiden • Originally Kabuki plays was acted by a women but men later assumed roles of women in Kabuki- by order of Shogun • Roles played by onnagata– men who specialize in female roles • Kabuki plays and dances may be about grand historical events or the everyday life of people in the Edo period (1600-1868). Typical onnagataactor in Kabuki play
“Floating Worlds” • Emergence of a prosperous merchant class brought “floating worlds” to Edo • “Red Light District” • Teahouses, theatres, brothels, public baths offered escape from rigid rules of society • Kabuki was first performed by prostitutes in their “off” hours; • Shogun finally banned women from theatre because of rowdy crowd that came to shows. “Dawn in the Licensed Quarters” Edo
Christianity in Japan • Initially welcomed to Japan…brought wondrous instruments : telescopes, etc. • When several powerful daimyo converted, Shogun became suspicious of missionaries • Shoguns feared joint European missionary-daimyo plot • Buddhist & Confucian scholars also resented Jesuit work • Shoguns ordered halt to Jesuit missions and tortured and killed many missionaries St. Francis Xavier in Japan A “martyr” for the cause
Economic Life in Edo • Wealth became new mark of social status • Rice dealers, pawnbrokers, & sake merchants soon controlled more wealth than ruling elites ! • Edo: large cosmopolitan city • Population explosion • Japanese scholars translated European medical and scientific works into Japanese from Dutch books brought by merchants. • Called “Dutch learning”
Source: Japanese artist, Nagasaki Port, 1700. • Dutch sailing ships and smaller Japanese vessels mingle in Nagasaki Harbor. • Dutch merchants conducted their business on the artificial island of Deshima in Nagasaki Harbor
Source: Japanese government private journal, 1688. A close up view of the island: travel by Dutch outside walls was prohibited.
Social Life in Edo • Limited space: “Thinning out the rice shoots” and bonsai trees ! • Like most societies, there was a relatively rigid Neo-Confucian social hierarchy • Shogun – Emperor • Daimyo • Samurai, followed by the peasants, artisans and merchants • Outcasts (eta), people with professions that were considered impure, formed a fifth class. • Not allowed to change social status • Becoming a geisha was a chance for social mobility
China (1450-1750) China, Ming dynasty, 16th century, Portrait of Sung Jen-tsung,
A Review 500 –1450 CE • Post –classical China has much interaction with rest of world • Period of peace and stability • Technology Explosion • Another “Golden Age” • Extensive trade networks • Spread of Buddhism • Chinese influence felt in Vietnam, Korea and Japan • Big difference between beginning & end of this period—be able to identify them
Tang Dynasty 618 –907 CE • Highpoint of Chinese civilization –Emperor was “Son of Heaven” • “Golden Age” • Middle Kingdom • 3 Field System introduced • Bureaucracy based on merit • Confucian Civil Service Exams • Developed strong tributary relationships with neighbors Empress Wu became ruler on husband Emperor Taizong’s death. Only empress of China !
Song Dynasty 960 –1279 CE Song Emperors re-imposed centralized rule after fall of Tang • Reinstated Confucian service exams • Agricultural surpluses: • Vietnamese fast-growing rice • Used heavy iron plows • Water buffalo and oxen, Pumps, waterwheels • Terraced mountainsides • Population explosion Song Emperor Taizu
Advances in Technology China’s Song and Tang Dynasties represented an extremely high level of technological, cultural and artistic achievement – at a time that Europe was living through the “dark ages” Chinese compass ( above) and “flying paper” or first checks ( below)
Technology in Post Classical China • China was a veritable technology workshop during classical era !!! • Beautiful porcelain • Gunpowder • Printing – block printing • Re-usable, movable type • Printed copies of Buddhist texts and Confucian works • Magnetic compass and other naval technologies such as sternpost rudders
Chinese Influence in East Asia • Chinese influenced the development of neighboring lands in post-classical times • Korea, Vietnam and Japan built distinctive societies – but with clear Chinese influence • Confucian civil service exam bureaucracy • Chinese style writing • Chinese style capitals • Chan Buddhism spread to these countries
Yuan Dynasty (200 year Mongol Rule) • Chinggis Khan (Temujin) forged various tribes into powerful alliance in 1206 • Khubilai Khan, grandson of Chinggis, ruled China 1200-1368 • Hated by native Chinese • Power struggles, inflated prices &Black Plague crushed Khanate in 1368 Khubilai Kahn presided over Mongol Empire in China at its height
Ming Dynasty 1368-1644 • Ming( “Brilliant”) Dynasty • Erased all signs of Mongol influence • Restored traditional ways to China • Promoted Confucian exams and Confucian thought • Built powerful imperial state • Deeply conservative • Goal: maintain the stability of a large agrarian society
Hongwu • Hongwu drove Mongols out of China • Used “mandarins” or imperial officials to oversee bureaucratic administration of large empire • Placed great trust in use of eunuchs so that there would be no power bases in Imperial palace
Yongle • Very ambitious Ming Emperor • Commissioned Zheng He & treasure ships to sail Indian Ocean • Yongle Encyclopedia -all things “Chinese” • Completed and enhanced the “Great Wall” • Confucianism and civil service system restored to prominence Yongleerased all evidence of Mongols
Ming Cultural Revolution • Printing & Literacy • Cheap, popular books: • woodblock printing. • cheap paper. • Examination system. • Leads to explosion in literacy. • Leads to further popularization of the commercial market. • Culture & Art • Increased literacy leads to increased interest in cultural expressions, ideas, and things: • Literature. • Painting. • Ceramics. • Opera.
Ming Silver Market • Spanish Silver Convoys • Triangle route: • Philippines to China to Japan. • Silver floods Chinese Market: • Causes devaluation of currency & recession • Adds to reasons for Chinese immigration overseas. • Reduces price of Chinese goods in Europe • Increases interest in Chinese culture & ideas in Europe. • Helps fund conquest of New World • Encourages Europeans in conquest & trade.
Decline of the Ming • Emperor were removed from everyday life and strife • Increased corruption, piracy, inefficiency in government • Series of famines in 17th Century forced peasants to eat grass roots and bark • Organized revolts broke out • Manchu invaders allied with Chinese rebels • Emperor’s family committed suicide as Forbidden City was overrun by Manchu invaders. Later Ming emperors such as Wanli lived in luxurious seclusion from real life and relied on eunuchs to run government
Ching (Q’ing) Dynasty 1644-1911 • Manchu invaders were pastoral nomads from north • Unlike Mongols • Continued administrative techniques used Confucian educated, scholar-gentry class to govern empire • But…like the Mongols • Forbid Intermarriage • Forbid learning Manchu language • Forbid travel to Manchuria • Q’ing (Manchu) ruled China until the Nationalists took over in 1911 Kangxi in Imperial Attire
Qing Dynasty 1644-1912 • Also known as the Manchu Dynasty was the last ruling dynasty • Highly integrated into Chinese culture but not Han Chinese • Beijing again became the capital and many Ming officials were in charge of the administration • Helped to stabilize the country and aid in conquest of the rest of China • Forced men to shave head and combine remaining hair into a queue
Kangxi conquered Taiwan and established a protectorate over Tibet 1770. Vietnam, Burma &Nepal became tributary states
Social Structures 1450 -1750 • Continued importance of Extended Family and Filial piety • Children to father • Subjects to emperor • Families supported education of bright sons • Gov’t position brought prestige and social position to whole family • Sons welcomed; girls considered social and financial liability • Infanticide not unusual • Cf. China’s one-child policy • Widows discouraged to remarry; and were, in fact, encouraged to commit suicide
Social Structure in Ming and Ching China Confucian scholars Scholar Bureaucrats Gentry Wore distinctive clothing. Landed gentry Peasants Honored because they did honest labor and provided food for large population Artisans Artisans ( barbers, physicians, tailors) had lower status but higher income than peasants Merchants Had enormous wealth but ranked at the bottom of the social ladder Mean People – ( Slaves, Indentured servants, entertainers, prostitutes, beggars) and Armed Forces were considered a necessary evil and not on the social chart at all
Economic Structures 1450 -1750 • Land was source of everything good • Emperor plowed the first furrow of season • Chinese cultivated every available piece of land (only 11% arable) • Global trade brought great prosperity to China • China accepted only silver bullion in exchange for silk, tea, etc. • Foreign trade strictly controlled at certain ports: • Portuguese trading post at Macau • English trading post in Guangzhou
Role of Technology (1450-1750) • Fear existed that technological would cause instability • Government policies favored political & social stability over technological development • Chinese emperors start to make decisions that turn China inward Large supply of labor obviated the need for developments in labor saving devices
New Confucian and Cultural Influences • Missionaries described China as well ordered and made China known to rest of world. • Like the Jesuits in Japan the missionaries sought to capture Chinese interest with European science, technology & diplomacy • Tried to convert emperors and people - but with little success. Fr Matteo Ricci impressed the Chinese but came into conflict with fellow missionaries
China at end of 1750 • Neo-Confucianism supported a socially & politically stable government with no place for outsiders…… perhaps one of big factors in China’s turning inward • China very different in 1750 than in 1450 !
The Dynasty Song … • Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han • Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han • Sui, Tang, Song • Sui, Tang, Song • Yuan, Ming, Qing, Republic • Yuan, Ming, Qing, Republic • Mao Zedong • Mao Zedong