The Development of Feudalism in Western Europe - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Development of Feudalism in Western Europe
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The Development of Feudalism in Western Europe

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  1. The Development of Feudalism in Western Europe PowerPoint #1

  2. The Middle Ages • Three time periods • Early Middle Ages 476-1000 • The High Middle Ages 1000 – 1300 • The Late Middle Ages 1300 - 1450

  3. The Early Middle Ages • Began with the fall of the Roman Empire • The Roman Empire had ruled much of Europe for 500 years – barbarians controlled the rest of the continent • After the fall life was dangerous and difficult • People had to work hard to have enough to eat • Needed to protect themselves from invaders

  4. Feudalism • Many invading groups set up kingdoms and were often at war with one another • Resulted from the difficult living situations in Europe • Political system where people pledge their loyalty to a lord

  5. Clovis • Franks were a powerful group that eventually took over a large part of Europe • Fought with knights in armor on horseback • Clovis was one of the first leaders

  6. Was a successful warrior • Became king of the Franks at age 15 in 481 • Ruled for 30 years • Widened the boundaries of the Frankish kingdom

  7. Clovis and Christianity • Married Clotilda a Catholic woman • Was baptized in to the Roman Catholic Church • Many people also became Catholic

  8. Charlemagne • Most important Frankish leader • Ruled from 768 to 814 • Was 6’4” tall (tall for the time) – stately and dignified • Could not read or could read very little • Had scholarly works read to him

  9. Encouraged education – made his court a center of culture • Rewarded knights with land and privileges • Unified nearly all the Christian lands of Europe • Was called “King Father of Europe”

  10. Pope Leo III and Charlemagne • Charlemagne had the help of Pope Leo III • Church was central part of society • The blessing of the Church sent the message to the people “God is on my side” • Leo needed the support of someone with an army • Pope crowned Charlemagne the Holy Roman Emperor in 800

  11. Empire survived many barbarian attacks • Charlemagne died in 814 • Empire fell apart • Weak rulers could not hold off invaders

  12. Ninth and tenth Centuries • Western Europe was threatened by three groups • Muslims from the middle east and northern Africa • Magyars – a central Asian people from the east • Vikings swept down from present day Norway and Denmark

  13. Vikings • Terrifying raids on towns and villages • Came in shallow boats carrying swords and axes • Killed and took prisoners • People of western Europe needed a way to defend and protect themselves

  14. Monarchs • Believed in the divine right of kings the idea that God had given them the right to rule • Some had to work hard to keep control • Most did not have enough money to keep their own army

  15. In early middle ages the nobles or lords grew very powerful and governed as independent • Monarch was little more than a figurehead and had no real power

  16. English Monarchs • Monarchs were quite strong in England during the Middle Ages • Vikings had invaded and settled in England • By mid 11th century, this area was ruled by a powerful Germanic group called the Saxons

  17. The king was a descendant of both the Saxon and Norman (French) families • He died without an adult heir • William, the powerful Duke of Normandy (present day France) believed he had the right to rule

  18. England crowned his cousin Harold • In 1066 William invaded England and defeated Harold in what is known as the battle of Hastings • A line of Norman Kings ruled England • William became known as William the conqueror • Brought feudal institutions from Europe with him

  19. Lords • Rulers or powerful land owners • In return people received protection from the lord

  20. Knights • Armed warriors who fought on behalf of their lord

  21. Peasants • Worked the land • Serf a peasant that was not free to leave the Lord’s land

  22. Establishing Order • By High Middle Ages feudalism provided the needed protection and safety and social order • People were bound to one another by pledges of loyalty • In theory all the land in the kingdom belonged to the monarch – king or queen

  23. fiefs • Land granted by the kings to the most important lords who became his vassals • In return the lords promised to supply the king with knights

  24. Manors • Large estates where lords and wealthier knights lived • Located in the country far from towns • Included • castle or manor house • One or more villages • Surrounding farmland

  25. Peasants • Had to produce everything needed in the manor

  26. Social Class • People were born into it • Had same position and job as their parents