The Development of Feudalism in Western Civilization Activity 3.2
The Development of Feudalism in Western Civilization Activity 3.2 • Sometimes we call the early Middle Ages the “Dark Ages” because of the cultural decay and political disorder that followed the fall of the Roman Empire. • Draw an outline silhouette of a head in your notes. It doesn’t have to be perfect. Stick figures will do. • Create a mind map in the center of your silhouette. Write the words Dark Ages in the center. • View the slides and write words or phrases that describe how these pictures might evoke (cause) feelings of decay and disorder . Dark Ages Mind Map
The Development of Feudalism in Western Civilization Activity 3.2 Slide 3.2B Mind Map
The Development of Feudalism in Western Civilization Activity 3.2 Slide 3.2C Mind Map
The Development of Feudalism in Western Civilization Activity 3.2 Slide 3.2D Mind Map
The Development of Feudalism in Western Civilization Activity 3.2 Slide 3.2E Mind Map
The Development of Feudalism in Western Civilization Activity 3.2 Slide 3.2F Mind Map
Charlemagne’s Rise to PowerActivity 3.2 Slide 3.2A • ruler of Franks in A.D. 481 • self-interested and cruel • prayed to idols of pagan gods for success in battle • had one defeat after another • Christian wife convinced him to pray to Christian God and won next battle • converted to Christianity • had support of Pope, the Church (Catholic), and Christian Romans living with the Franks Clovis
Charlemagne’s Rise to PowerActivity 3.2 Slide 3.2A By the authority of the Church, I crown thee Holy Roman Emperor. • Background on Franks • Germanic people • lived along Rhine River • loyal to kin • Clovis converted to Christianity, 481 • Charlemagne's Accomplishments • created large empire made of self- • sufficient manors • counts kept order in his kingdom • made Aachen new center for • learning • Division of Frankish Empire • Kingdom divided into three parts • after Charlemagne’s death • division weakened Empire’s unity • and caused the collapse of • the Frankish Kingdom God Himself has made me king Steps to Charlemagne’s Rise to Power Step 1: Converted Germans to Christianity through war Step 2: Prevented Muslims from expanding into Europe Step 3: Brutally put down a Saxon revolt
Charlemagne’s Rise to PowerActivity 3.2 Slide 3.2A Muslim Spain
Vikings longboats Shirt made with iron rings Viking symbols
Viking woman at work in wooden house Viking villages Medieval Viking woman’s traditional costume
Medieval CastlesActivity 3.2 Slide 3.2C • Compare and contrast the two pictures • What are the similarities of the two castles? • What are some of the differences of the two castles? • What are the different parts of the two castles? • Why are the different parts built this way? • What function do you think each part serves?
Medieval Castles/Motte and Bailey CastlesActivity 3.2 Slide 3.2C keep drawbridge kitchen workshops motte bailey stockade stables moat residences
Moat and Bailey Castle • motte—a mound of dirt and rock constructed in order to raise the level of the castle and provide additional protection against invaders • keep—the stronghold of the castle built on top of the moat; usually a strong wooden tower; a safe place for the lord to go during an attack • stockade—awall of wooden stakes built around the bailey and on top of the moat • bailey—The stockade enclosure containing… • kitchen • stables • workshops • barns • chapel • residences for peasants and workers • moat—a deep ditch or a man-made body of water that surrounds the moat and bailey making it difficult for invaders to reach the castle and surrounding buildings • drawbridge—between • No hot water or plumbing, generally crowded and uncomfortable, fresh water could be difficult to obtain, herbs thrown on floors to mask (hide) the bad smell
Medieval CastlesActivity 3.2 Slide 3.2C keep shaft inner bailey residence parapet arrow slit stables kitchen ventilation slit portcullis workshops drawbridge moat
Stockade walls made of dirt and wood were replaced by stone walls. The moat or ditch was also replace by a stone wall. Instead of windows the castle walls have Ventilation slits—spaces just large enough to allow some fresh air into the castle, while allowing a man defending the castle to shoot an arrow out of the window and still be protected Sanitation in castles was taken care of by a shaft called a garderobe that ran through the stone walls often to an underground sewer near the well that served as the castle’s main water supply. Great stone tower keeps replaced the shell keep serving as both a residence and a fortress. These keeps were built in the form of towers having several stories. The bottom story—or basement—was the dungeon, or donjon—an underground chamber used for storage, a well, and occasionally as a holding cell for knights held in capture for ransom. The first story housed the servants, pages, and squires. The second story was the lord’s residence. At the top of each tower was a parapet—a low wall protecting the tower’s edge. Parapets often had arrow slits carved out to allow for defense. There was a drawbridge across the moat. The entrance to the castle was protected by a portcullis—a sliding grill of iron or wood hung in the gateway to the castle in such a way that it could be lowered quickly in order to prevent enemies from gaining entrance.
Life on a ManorActivity 3.2 Slide 3.2D Feudal Social Hierarchy Monarch– ruler of a large area who owned land which could be exchanged for fealty Clergy – religious leaders who taught and spread Christianity Nobles and Lords - lived in a manor or castle and ruled over the land given to them by the monarch—swore to defend their monarch if needed—to go to war for them. Vassals and Knights- trained knights who studied warfare from the age of seven. Lived by the code of chivalry. Granted a fief by the Lord in exchange for their promise of loyalty and military service Peasants – Freemen - Able to pay the lord for the use of his land and able to leave the manor at any time. Lords could force freemen to leave Peasants – Serfs – worked the land for the lord giving almost all their food and work to the lord. Serfs were not allowed to move from the land, own property, or marry without the lord’s permission. Serfs swore allegiance to their lords.
Life on a Manor The Church The church was another central feature of the manor. The religion of the whole of Europe was Roman Catholic and it was law that people went to church on a Sunday. The leading churchmen of the land, Bishops and Archbishops were very wealthy and helped to govern the country. The local priests, however, were much poorer and were often uneducated. It was the priest's job to look after the sick of the village as well as preaching in the church
Life on a Manor Villeins (serfs, peasants) The largest amount of land on the manor would be used by the villeins. Their house would be surrounded by a yard called a 'toft' and a garden called a 'croft'. This land would be used for growing crops and vegetables, a percentage of which would be given to a knight as 'payment' for their land. Villein's houses were one-roomed and the family shared the space with the animals. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/medieval_peasants.htm
The Development of Feudalism in Western Civilization Activity 3.2 Slide 3.2E Bayeux Tapestry
Bayeux Tapestry (French: Tapisserie de Bayeux) is a long embroidered cloth [50 cm by 70 m (20 in by 230 ft)] which depicts the events leading up to the 1066 Norman invasion of England as well as the events of the invasion itself. The Tapestry is annotated in Latin. It is presently exhibited in a special museum in Bayeux, Normandy, France. Is the Bayeux Tapestry a primary document? William's cavalry embark for England prior to the Norman invasion.
Celts and Saxons When the Romans, who were based in England, left the country to fight in their homeland, laws and civilization broke down in England. The Celts were the indigenous population of Southern England. They were under attack from various forces—the Scots, the Welsh, and the Vikings! They arranged for foreign mercenaries from Europe to fight off these invaders. These mercenaries were paid with land. The families of the mercenaries, many from Germany, also cam to England. They were the Saxons. The Saxons began taking over from the Celts, who were driven from South England to the West and North of England. These Saxons intermarried with the Celts. Some Saxons brought their families to England from their land in Germany. The Anglo-Saxons were born and their land was Wessex, England. http://www.battle-of-hastings-1066.org.uk/anglo-saxons.htm
Anglo-Saxons In A.D. 420 with the fall of the Roman Empire, there were no more Roman troops in Britain. People from other places began to invade the island. Both the Danes and the Anglo-Saxons (from Germany) invaded regularly at this time. There is a story, which you have probably heard, that at this time there arose in England a famous king, King Arthur, who had a famous magician helper named Merlin, and whose Knights of the Round Table fought off the Anglo-Saxons and the Danes, and kept England civilized and unified. It is hard for historians to say definitely whether Arthur really existed. But it does seem likely that the English organized to keep the Anglo-Saxons and the Danes out. However, as the Arthur stories say, the effort failed. By the 600's, England had been taken over by the Angles and the Saxons. The name England means the land of the Angles. The Angles and Saxons did at least manage to fight off the Danes for the most part. The Anglo-Saxon kings ruled England from the 600's AD until the Norman Conquest in 1066. http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/medieval/history/earlymiddle/arthur.htm
King Edward the Confessor restored the Saxon dynasty to the English throne after many years of Danish rule. He was a very pious monarch and spent most of his time praying and building Westminster Abbey. He didn't seem interested in his wife or in producing an heir to the throne. Unfortunately, he, therefore, had no obvious heir at his death and this situation led to a series of invasions and, finally, the Conquest of England by Duke William the Bastard of Normandy. Edward was buried in Westminster Abbey a few days after its completion. He was revered as a saint and was the Patron Saint of England before the introduction of the worship of St. George.
Harold Goodwinsson was King Edward’s brother-in-law. Edward. In 1053 Edward passed virtually all the administration of the kingdom to Harold so that he could devote all his energies to Church matters and hunting. On January 4, 1066 Edward the Confessor died. Harold is elected by the Anglo-Saxon assembly nobles to succeed Edward. Harold had sworn to William of Normandy that he would support William becoming king. Harold broke his promise and wanted to become king. Harold was killed at the Battle of Hastings.
Vikings • The first recorded Viking raid took place in 793 AD • Financially motivated raids would soon lead to military campaigns with territorial conquest as a goal. In 866 AD, the landing of the largest Viking army yet seen in England -- called the Great Army -- set off a long and bitter war against the Anglo-Saxons for control of England. • By 878 AD the Vikings controlled the kingdoms of Northumbria and East Anglia. Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, successfully held off the Vikings. In 885, a treaty of coexistence between the two powers gave the Vikings control of England's north and east -- an area that became known as Danelawand whose Viking legacy is present to this day in town names. • The English were able to regain all lands lost to the Vikings by 954. • During this time, the Scandinavian warriors terrorized England and demanded danegeld, payment to ensure peace. • The English lost control again when the Danish King Svein launched an attack in 1012. His son, Cnut (Canute), became the sole ruler of England, but Cnut's death triggered another power struggle. • Harold Hardrada, king of Norway, arrived in 1066 to fight for the throne. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/warriorchallenge/vikings/time.html
There are no contemporary images of Harald Hadrada, but if he was following the latest trends in military hardware and protection, then he may have looked like this rider from the late Norwegian tapestry at Badishol, dated to around 1180AD http://www.normanconquest.co.uk/claimants_harald.htm
Normans http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/medieval/history/highmiddle/normans.htm 1066 Country is located in the county of East Sussex in the south eastern part of England. The area is so named because of the Battle of Hastings in 1066. This section pinpoints the area with maps of the town and surrounding countryside and its location with respect to Normandy, the home of William the Conqueror. Around 1000 AD, some of the Vikings who had been raiding France got permission from the French king to settle down and live in France instead. They were supposed to help protect France against other Vikings (as the Visigoths had done before). As part of the deal, these Vikings also converted from their German gods to Catholicism. These settlers were called the Normans (which is short for North-Men, because they came from the North). The part of France where they lived is called Normandy, the land of the North-Men, even today.
In 1066 AD William of Normandy decided to attack England and try to conquer it from the Anglo-Saxons. William was not a rich man himself, because his mother had not been married to his father when he was born, and according to medieval law he could not inherit his father's property. People called him William the Bastard (that means that his parents were not married).William thought if he conquered England he might become rich. A lot of his friends agreed with him. So they sailed across the English Channel in a lot of small boats, and when they got there they did beat the Anglo-Saxons in the battle of Hastings. The Anglo-Saxon king, Harold, was shot in the eye with an arrow and died. William of Normandy (who was now called William the Conqueror) became the new king of England. He was crowned in Westminster Abbey. He built the Tower of London to live in, to keep himself and his family safe. William and all his friends spoke French, but the English people spoke Saxon. So for a long time there were two languages spoken in England. http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/medieval/history/highmiddle/normans.htm
Two Battles There were two main battles in 1066 http://www.mrfield.btinternet.co.uk/Conquest/two_battles.htm
How did the conquest change England? Consequences of the Norman Invasion • Normans ruled England as Kings • Domesday Book • French became the official language at court • Castles were built around England • New laws were passed to give the Normans more power • The style of buildings changed • The Feudal System was introduced • There was an army of occupation in much of the country
What is the Domesday Book? The Domesday Book is a great land survey from 1086, commissioned by William the Conqueror to assess the extent of the land and resources being owned in England at the time, and the extent of the taxes he could raise. The information collected was recorded by hand in two huge books, in the space of around a year. William died before it was fully completed. Why is it called the ‘Domesday Book’? It was written by an observer of the survey that "there was no single hide nor a yard of land, nor indeed one ox nor one cow nor one pig which was left out". The complete scale on which the Domesday survey took place and the permanent nature of the information collected led people to compare it to the Last Judgement, or 'Doomsday', described in the Bible, when the deeds of Christians written in the Book of Life were to be placed before God for judgement. This name was not adopted until the late 12th Century. What information is in the book? The Domesday Book provides records of landholders, their tenants, the amount of land they owned, how many people occupied the land (villagers, smallholders, free men, slaves, etc.), the amounts of woodland, meadow, animals, fish and ploughs on the land (if there were any) and other resources, any buildings present (churches, castles, mills, salthouses, etc.), and the value of the land and its assets, before the Norman Conquest, after it, and at the time of Domesday. http://www.domesdaybook.co.uk/faqs.html#1
King John and the Magna Carta • What do you see in this picture? • Who is King John? • Who are the people surrounding the king? • What are they saying to him? • How do you think King John is feeling? • How do the King and the people feel about each other? • Why?
King Richard • collects large amounts of taxes to go on Crusade • captured and held for ransom • the people are taxed even more • when he dies in AD 1199, his younger brother, John, • becomes king • King John’s behaviors… • called John “Lackland” because he inherited no land from his • father • had no money to defend England’s lands in France • taxed landowners more • bought goods cheaply and sold to his people at high prices • made his people help build his palaces • took horses and other things he needed whenever • offered the people fewer services • was a weak military leader and lost most of England’s land in • France • quarreled with Pope Innocent III and was excommunicated • English nobles and church officials actions… • in AD 1215 confronted King John at the meadow • of Runnymede • demanded he sign a contract called the Magna • Carta (Great Charter) that • - curbed the king’s power • - had rules that kings of England must follow
Rights granted in Magna Carta • separation of church and state • trial by jury • representative government in the • form of an advisory council • the laws of inheritance for both • widows and children were drastically changed to safeguard survivors. Before this, the king had the right to marry off a widow to the highest bidder. The new husband took not only a bride, but the lands and wealth as well. By challenging this practice, the nobles struck a first blow for the rights of women and children http://www.bl.uk/treasures/magnacarta/translation.html#top http://hua.umf.maine.edu/Reading_Revolutions/magnacarta.html