Feudalism in Europe • Chapter 13 • Section 2 • Pages 322-326
Terms to know: • Lord • Fief • Vassal • Knight • Serf • Manor • Tithe
Main Idea • Feudalism in Europe was a system of political alliances and protective military relationships. • The rights and duties of feudal relationships helped shape today’s forms of representative government.
New Invasions Trouble Western Europe • Carolingian Empire destroyed between 800-1000. • Muslims seize Sicily and raid Italy, they sack Rome in 846. • Magyar invaders attack Italy and Germany. • Vikings attack the south.
Vikings: Raiders, Traders , and Explorers • Norsemen – Germanic people from Scandinavia. • They worship warlike gods. • Nicknames: • Eric Bloodaxe • Thorfinn Skullsplitter
Vikings • Strike fast and retreat to sea. • Largest warships held 300, used 72 oars. • Ships might weigh 20 tons, but could sail in 3 feet of water.
Vikings • Not just warriors, but farmers and explorers. • Down rivers to central Russia. • To Constantinople. • Across the North Atlantic.
Leif Ericson • Reached North America around 1000. • 500 years before Columbus. • Son of Erik the Red.
Viking terror fades as….. • Vikings accept Christianity. • Warming trend in Europe makes farming in Scandinavia easier. • Agricultural settlements in Greenland and Iceland prosper.
Magyars • Nomadic people from what is now Hungary. • Superb Horsemen. • Invade western Europe in the 800s • They capture people to sell as slaves. • They DON’T settle conquered lands.
Muslims • Struck form the south. • Controlled the Mediterranean, disrupted trade. • Tried to conquer and settle Europe in the 600s and 700s. • Excellent sailors, they attacked as far inland as Switzerland.
Result of Invasions: • Europeans live in constant danger. • Central authority proved powerless. • People look to local leaders with their own armies. • Strong local leaders gain followers and political strength.
Feudalism Structures Society • In 911, former enemies meet in a peace ceremony • Rollo - a Viking chief • And • Charles the Simple – King of France.
Details of the Peace • Charles grants Rollo a large section of France. • It becomes known as Northmen’s land, or Normandy. • Rollo swears a pledge of loyalty.
A New Social Order • Feudalism – a system based on mutual obligations. • Lord = landowner who grants land. • Fief = land granted by a lord. • Vassal = receives the fief from the lord in exchange for loyalty and military service to the lord.
The Feudal Pyramid • King • Most powerful vassals • Nobles and Bishops (wealthy landowners) • Knights – mounted warriors • Landless peasants who work in the fields.
Feudalism • Often got complex • A noble might be vassal to several different lords.
Social Classes Well Defined • People classed into 3 groups: • Those who fought - Nobles and Knights. • Those who prayed – Men and women of the Church. • Those who worked – Peasants.
Serfs • People who could not lawfully leave the place where they were born. • The vast majority of people in Europe during the Middle Ages were serfs. • They are bound to the land, but are not slaves. They could not be bought or sold by the lord.
Manors • The lord’s estate. • Lords provide serfs with housing, strips of farmland and protection from bandits. • Serfs tend the land, care for animals, and maintained the estate. • Serf women work with their husbands. • Serfs owe their labor and a part of their grain to the lord.
Manor Life • Peasants rarely traveled more than 25 miles. • Manors consist of: • Manor house • Church • Workshops • 15 - 30 families. • Fields, pastures, and forest surround the village. Streams and ponds provide fish.
Manor Life • A self-sufficient community. • Serfs produce: • Crops • Fuel • Cloth • Leather Goods • Lumber
Manor Life • Peasants pay a taxes • To live on the lord’s land. • On grain ground at the lord’s mill. • On marriage. • Tithes to the Church were collected after taxes were paid. • Tithes are one-tenth of income.
Serf Life • Live in crowded cottages with one or two rooms. • Warm their dirt-floor house by bringing pigs inside. • Slept on piles of straw. • Diet consisted of vegetables, coarse bread, grain, cheese, and soup.