Western Europe During the Middle Ages • Barbarians invade Western Roman Empire and set up separate kingdoms ruled by different barbarian tribes. • Clovis defeats last great Roman army sets up kingdom in France; helps lead the Franks into Christianity.
Western Europe During the Middle Ages (continued) • Charlemagne(Charles the Great) unifies nearly all of the Christian lands of Europe into a single empire. • Charlemagne ruled the Franks from 768 to 814 C.E. • Charlemagne rewarded knights with land and privileges in return for military service.
Western Europe During the Middle Ages (continued) • The Roman Catholic Church’s pope crowns Charlemagne the Holy Roman emperor in 800 C.E. • Charlemagne’s reign brought a degree of civilization to Europe that had been missing since the fall of the Roman Empire.
Western Europe During the Middle Ages (continued) • Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims attack. • After Charlemagne’s death, Europe needed a way to defend itself. • The system of feudalism gradually develops. • Feudalism was based on the need for protection.
Monarchs During Feudal Times • Monarchs believed in the divine rights of kings. • Monarchs provided protection. • Monarchs gave fiefs to vassals in exchange for loyalty and service. • The most important quality in feudalism was loyalty. • Dukes were below kings in the feudal hierarchy.
Monarchs During Feudal Times (cont.) • William the Conqueror brings feudalism to England, after his victory in the Battle of Hastings in 1066.
Lords and Ladies During Feudal Times • Nobles lived on manors with castles and moats. • It was the lord’s responsibility to manage and defend his manor and to act as a judge. • Ladies were responsible for raising and training their children and overseeing the household.
Marriage • Marriages were usually to gain land or property. • Marriages were often arranged by parents. • Sometimes children were only 4 or 5 years old when they were married. • The bride’s family would pay a dowry. • Unmarried women were often forced into convents.
Marriage (continued) • Women and children were the property of the husband/father. • On certain days, the wife was required to lie at the husband’s feet and beg forgiveness for anything she had done or had failed to do. The children would do the same at their parents’ feet. • Child and wife beating were common, although some rules said that the beating should be reasonable.
Knights • Armoredknights were mounted soldiers. • The code of chivalry was the set of rules of behavior that all knights were expected to live by. • At around age 7, a boy would start training to be a knight.
Peasants • Peasants did most of the work but owned very little. • Most peasants were farmers. • Serfs were tied to the land, and if one lord took the land from another, he got the serfs too. • The vast majority of the population was peasants.
The Development of Feudalism in Western Europe: Review • Barbarians invade and set up kingdoms • Rome falls • Clovis defeats last great Roman army sets up kingdom in France; helps lead the Franks into Christianity. • Charlemagneunifies nearly all of the Christian lands of Europe into a single empire. • The Roman Catholic Church’s pope crowns Charlemagne the Holy Roman emperor. • Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims attack. In response the system of feudalism develops. • After his victory in the Battle of Hastings in 1066, William the Conqueror brings feudalism to England.
Feudalism Review Continued • Feudalism was based on the need for protection. • The most important quality in feudalism was loyalty. • Monarchs gave fiefs to vassals in exchange for loyalty and service. • Nobles lived on manors with castles and moats. • Monarchs believed in the divine right of kings. • Dukes were below kings in the feudal hierarchy. • Knights wore armor and lived by a code of behavior called chivalry. • Peasants worked the land and had very little.
Clovis took to wife Clotilde, daughter of the king of the Burgundians and a Christian. The queen unceasingly urged the king to acknowledge the true God, and forsake idols. But he could not in any wise be brought to believe until war broke out with the Alemanni. . . . The two armies were in battle and there was great slaughter. Clovis' army was near to utter destruction. He saw the danger . . . and raised his eyes to heaven, saying: Jesus Christ, whom Clotilde declares to be the son of the living God, who it is said givest aid to the oppressed and victory to those who put their hopes in thee, I beseech thy . . . aid. If thou shalt grant me victory over these enemies . . . I will believe in thee and be baptized in thy name. For I have called upon my gods, but . . . they are far removed from my aid. So I believe that they have no power, for they do not succor those who serve them. Now I call upon thee, and I long to believe in thee. . . . When he had said these things, the Alemanni turned their backs and began to flee. When they saw that their king was killed, they submitted to the sway of Clovis, saying . . . Now we are thine. An account of Clovis' conversion, provided by the Christian church historian Gregory of Tours (c.539-594) in his History of the Franks
Medieval Society oratores: those who praybellatores: those who fightlaborares: those who work