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MOTIVATION. Team Coconut. Motivation. The INTERNAL and/or EXTERNAL forces that arouse enthusiasm and persistence in a person to pursue a certain course of action.

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Team Coconut


The INTERNAL and/or EXTERNAL forces that arouse enthusiasm and persistence in a person to pursue a certain course of action

  • Employee motivation affects productivity, and part of a manager’s job is to channel motivation to accomplish the organization’s goals.

  • The study of motivation helps us understand what prompts people to initiate action, what influences their choice of action, & why they persist in that action over time.

Simple model of human motivation
Simple Model of Human Motivation

People have basic needs

Needs motivate specific behavior to fulfill those needs

If successful, feel rewarded

Feedback tells if successful in fulfilling needs

Two types of rewards
Two Types of Rewards


    Satisfactions a person receives in the process of performing a particular action


    Rewards given by another person, typically a manager, and include promotions, pay increases, and bonuses

    They originate externally, is a result of pleasing others

Foundations of motivation

  • Traditional Approach

  • Human Relations Approach

  • Human Resource Approach

  • Contemporary Approach

Traditional approach
Traditional Approach

Work of Frederick W. Taylor on Scientific Management and Efficiency


The ECONOMIC MAN – People will work harder for higher pay

Traditional approach1
Traditional Approach


  • People were paid based on the quantity & quality of their work


Human relations approach
Human Relations Approach

  • A more “social perspective” on employees

  • The Hawthorne studies showed showed that non-economic rewards such as congenial work groups that met social needs seemed more important than money as a motivator.


Human relations approach1
Human Relations Approach

Workers were studied as people and the concept of the “Social Man” emerged

Human resource approach
Human Resource Approach

  • Extends the knowledge of economic man and social man to introduce the concept of the WHOLE PERSON

  • The work by McGregor argues that:

  • People want to do a good job; and,

  • Work is as natural as and healthy as play

Social Man

Economic Man


Human resource approach1
Human Resource Approach



Basis for contemporary perspective on employee motivation.

Contemporary approach
Contemporary Approach

Consists of 3 Types of Theories

  • Content Theories

  • Provide insights into the needs of people in organizations and help managers understand how needs can be satisfied in the workplace

Contemporary approach1
Contemporary Approach

Consists of 3 Types of Theories

  • Content Theories

  • Process Theories

  • Content with the thought processes that influence behavior and focus on how employees seek rewards in work circumstances

Contemporary approach2
Contemporary Approach

Consists of 3 Types of Theories

  • Content Theories

  • Process Theories

  • Reinforcement Theories

  • Focus on teaching employees desired work behaviors.

Content perspectives on motivation
Content Perspectives on Motivation

  • Hierarchy of Needs Theory

  • ERG Theory

  • Two Factor Theory

  • Acquired Needs Theory

Hierarchy needs theory
Hierarchy Needs Theory

Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory proposes that humans are motivated by multiple needs, existing in a hierarchical order.

Hierarchy needs theory1
Hierarchy Needs Theory

What does this hierarchy of needs say?

Hierarchy needs theory2
Hierarchy Needs Theory

In the organizational setting, this includes….

Deals with the most basic human needs, e.g.,…

The 1st Level is…

In the organizational setting, these needs include…

Hierarchy needs theory3
Hierarchy Needs Theory

Needs for a safe & secure physical & emotional environment free from threats of violence.

In the workplace, safety needs are for safe jobs, fringe benefits, & job security.

The 2nd Level of Needs is…

Hierarchy needs theory4
Hierarchy Needs Theory

On the job, it is the desire for good relationships w/ co-workers, participation in a work group, & a positive relationship w/ supervisors

The desire to be ACCEPTED by one’s peers, have friends, be part of a group, & be loved

The 3rd Level of Needs is…

Hierarchy needs theory5
Hierarchy Needs Theory

A desire for recognition, increased responsibility, high status, & credit for contributions

A desire for a positive self-image & the need to receive attention, recognition & appreciation from others

The 4th Level of Needs is…

Hierarchy needs theory6
Hierarchy Needs Theory

Providing opportunities to grow, encouraging creativity, & providing training for challenging assignments & advancement

Represents the need for self-fulfillment—developing one’s full potential, increasing one’s competence, & becoming a better person

The Highest Level of Needs is…

Hierarchy needs theory7
Hierarchy Needs Theory

The lower order needs take priority & must be satisfied first.

Hierarchy needs theory8
Hierarchy Needs Theory

Once a need is satisfied, it declines in importance and the next higher need is activated.

If a lower-level need ceases to be satisfied, however, it will re-emerge and take precedence over higher order needs until it is satisfied.

Erg theory
ERG Theory

The ERG theory was developed by Clayton Alderfer. It simplifies Maslow’s hierarchy of needs & responds to criticisms of its lack of empirical verification.

Erg theory1
ERG Theory

Need for physical well being

Erg theory2
ERG Theory

Need for satisfactory relationships with others

Erg theory3
ERG Theory

Focuses on the dev’t of human potential & the desire for personal growth & increased competence

Erg theory4
ERG Theory

  • This theory is similar to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs because both are hierarchical & presume individuals move up the hierarchy one need at a time

Erg theory5
ERG Theory

FRUSTRATION-REGRESSION Principle: Failure to meet higher order need may trigger regression to an already fulfilled lower order need

Erg theory6
ERG Theory

  • Frustration-regression Principle:A worker who cannot fulfill a need for personal growth may revert to a lower order social need & redirect his/her efforts toward making a lot of money


Erg theory7
ERG Theory

  • Many companies find that by creating a humane workplace that allows a balance bet. work & personal life is a GREAT HIGH-LEVEL MOTIVATOR

Erg theory8
ERG Theory

  • Many companies find that by creating a humane workplace that allows a balance bet. work & personal life is a GREAT HIGH-LEVEL MOTIVATOR

  • Making work fun plays a role in creating this balance; it relieves stress & enables people to feel more “whole”

Two factor theory
Two Factor Theory

Frederick Herzberg asserted that work characteristics associated with DISSATISFACTION were different from those connected with SATISFACTION.

This prompted the idea that TWO different FACTORS influenced work motivation and an employee’s behavior at work.

Two factor theory1
Two Factor Theory

When HYGIENE FACTORS are poor, work is dissatisfying. GOOD hygiene factors remove dissatisfaction, but they do not cause satisfaction or motivation. Instead, employees are neutral towards work

Two factor theory2
Two Factor Theory

The Manager’s role: Provide hygiene factors to meet basic needs and use motivators to meet high-level to propel employees toward achievement and satisfaction

When MOTIVATION FACTORS are present, workers are highly motivated and satisfied. The absence of motivating factors removes satisfaction, but does not cause dissatisfaction. Instead, employees are neutral toward work.

Applied needs theory
Applied Needs Theory

David McClelland proposes in this theory that certain types of needs are ACQUIRED or LEARNED during an individuals lifetime.

People are not born with these needs, but may learn them through their life experiences.

Applied needs theory1
Applied Needs Theory

The desire to achieve something difficult, attain success, master complex tasks, & surpass other

The desire to influence or control others, be responsible for others, & have authority over others.

The desire to form close personal relationships, avoid conflict, & establish warm friendships.