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  1. Warm-up • Update your Table of Contents • Write your homework – have it stamped • Get your “Fungi Assignment” out to be checked

  2. Homework • Research any disease and find out the following: • What type of pathogen it is caused by • What the symptoms are • How can it be treated • Any other info about it/picture • Find out what you have received vaccinations for

  3. Pathogens Cause Disease • We will focus on 4 Types of Pathogens: • Fungi • Bacteria • Viruses • Parasites

  4. Fungi Fact Review • What would you ask about Fungi on a quiz?

  5. ERT = Everybody Reads To… • We will read one paragraph at a time • Discuss the answers to the questions • Then take notes in the box

  6. ERT Paragraph 1

  7. Pathogens Pathogen - Anything that can cause disease or harm • Also referred to as microbes or germs • Virus, Bacteria & Parasites are the 3 main types of disease spreading pathogens

  8. Types of Diseases • Non-communicable: • Cannot be passed from person to person • Can be due to genetics, lifestyle choices, or environmental factors • EX: Cancer, ALS, Alzheimer’s, Arthritis, Heart Disease, Diabetes • Communicable (Infectious or Contagious): • Caused by a Microbe entering body and reproducing – Bacteria, Virus, Parasite • Easily spread between individual organisms • EX:Cold, Flu, Strep Throat

  9. ERT Paragraph 2

  10. Virus • NOT LIVING – Needs a host to survive and reproduce • Since it is not alive, it has NO CELLS • Very small • Vaccines used to treat

  11. How a Virus Attacks a Cell… •

  12. ERT Paragraph 3

  13. Bacteria • Living organisms • Unicellular, prokaryotic • Larger than viruses, but usually more treatable • Antibiotics used to treat

  14. Fun Fact:Clean skin has about 20 million bacteria per square inch…

  15. ERT Paragraph 4

  16. Parasites • Living organisms that need a host to survive – highly adapted to their host • Unicellular or multicellular • Come in many shapes and sizes

  17. Maggots in My Head • Tapeworm in My Eye

  18. Pathogen Foldable • Quickly create a foldable that contains quick reference information for each type of pathogen USE YOUR PATHOGENS FOLDABLE TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING ON PAGE 14: • How are viruses and bacteria different? • How are parasites and viruses similar? • Which type of pathogen would you consider most serious and why?

  19. Warm-up • Update your Table of Contents • Write your homework – have it stamped • Tape your disease research to the wall around the room – MAKE SURE YOUR NAME IS ON IT! • Make sure you have answered the questions on page 14 using your pathogens foldable from last class

  20. What Was A Pathogen Again…? • Pathogens are anything that cause disease…they are also referred to as microbes and germs

  21. What Were the 4 Pathogens We Are Focusing On Again…? • Fungi • Bacteria • Viruses • Parasites

  22. Throw Up…I Mean Warm Up Turn to page 14 and make sure your have answered the following using your pathogens foldable: • How are viruses and bacteria different? • How are parasites and viruses similar? • Which type of pathogen would you consider most serious and why?

  23. Pathogen Gallery Walk • Which disease did you research? • Tape your research up around the room so we can review all of the diseases that were researched! • What vaccinations have you received?

  24. Who Figures All of This Out? • An Epidemiologist is a scientist who studies diseases including how they start, spread and how they are treated.

  25. Spreading Disease… How does it happen…LET’S INVESTIGATE!?

  26. Finding Patient Zero • Each person will receive a test tube and a syringe • You will carefully go around the room and trade fluids with 2 other people using the syringe • Remember who you trade with and in what order • When completed, sit down and write down who you traded with first and second

  27. Contagions • Many pathogens are also said to be contagions • Contagions – capable of being spread by direct or indirect contact (in other words…contagious)

  28. Contagion Clip • • Features Kate Winslet as an epidemiologist trying to trace back to “patient zero”

  29. How Do Pathogens Cause Harm? • They can change what your cells do • Especially viruses and even chemicals Mutagen – something that actually changes or “mutates” the genetic material of an organism

  30. How do pathogens spread? • 4 main ways that pathogens are transferred: • Person to person • Food and water • Environment • Animals

  31. People to People… • Carrier – a person who is infected and can infect others but may not show the symptoms of the disease themselves

  32. Types of Carriers 1. Symptomatic: • they show symptoms of the disease; they are SICK • they are actively spreading disease particles to others while they are sick • May be coughing, sneezing, have runny nose • EX: Influenza, Chicken Pox, Common Cold 2. Asymptomatic: • Does not appear to be sick • Can still actively spread disease to others • EX: HIV

  33. Food and Water • Contaminated food and water can spread pathogens, below are a few examples: = - Infected animals - Food or water that comes from unsanitary areas or isn’t cleaned - Eating raw or undercooked food

  34. Environments • Moist • A lot like water • Average temperatures • Not too hot or too cold • Limited exposure to fresh air • More ability to reproduce • Sunlight • Good for some, bad for others • Food sources • Sugars or decaying material

  35. Animals • Vector – Insects and animals that spread disease to humans • EXAMPLES: • Fleas – transmit bubonic plague • Ticks – transmit Lyme disease • Mosquitoes – transmit Malaria

  36. Medicine • Antibiotics – Medicine that prevents the growth and reproduction of bacteria • Vaccines – A weak dose of a virus that helps your immune system kill the real virus later

  37. Preventing the Spread… • Eat right, get enough rest, avoid stress • Antibacterial soaps and antimicrobial solutions (don’t overuse) • Antibiotics (don’t overuse) • Get vaccinated • Covering our mouths when we cough or sneeze • Avoid unnecessary contact with people, animals or objects that could be contaminated! • Keep studying diseases and how they adapt and change!

  38. Questions??

  39. Warning…Outbreak! • Create a warning poster, warning sign, comic, commercial jingle or brochure or any other format you can think of warning your neighborhood about a possible disease outbreak! • Things to include: • Name: disease (real or fictional) • Mugshot: picture • Description of suspect: virus, bacteria, parasite? • Crimes: how does it attack? how does it spread? symptoms? common victims? • How can you prevent being infected? • Reward??? Must be informational, but can also be silly!!

  40. Examples

  41. Warm-up • Update your Table of Contents • Write your homework – have it stamped • Put your Warning…Outbreak! assignment in the basket • Grab your folder to file your Cell Quiz

  42. Recap • Antibiotics treat what type of pathogen? Vaccines? • Why do we not want to overuse antibiotics, antibacterial cleaners or antimicrobial solutions? • Describe the job of an epidemiologist. • Why do you think that diseases that are no longer an issue in the United States are still a problem in other parts of the world?

  43. Recap • People that are infected with a disease are called something different than animals infected with a disease… • What is the difference between a contagion and mutagen and how do they relate to communicable vs. non-communicable diseases • Why is it important to know where the people you associate with have been and who they have been in contact with?

  44. Mythbusters: Flu Fiction • How Easily Can Pathogens Really Spread?

  45. The Rate of Spread… • How quickly a disease spreads, and size of the area it spreads to are key factors in the study of epidemiology… • Outbreak - The Cholera Story

  46. Cholera Background • Cholera is a disease that is spread by bacteria in water or through person-to-person contact. The onset of cholera can appear with little or no warning, and include symptoms such as diarrhea, acute spasmodic vomiting and painful cramping. The victim can lose up to 5 gallons of liquid within 24 hours consequently causing severe dehydration accompanied by cyanosis, a condition in which the skin turns blue, skin also begins to pucker and become cold…death may occur in as little as a few hours.

  47. The Cholera Story • Imagine yourself in London, the year is 1849…what would your life be like? Suddenly, people in your neighborhood begin to get sick and die very quickly. You hear your parents whispering that this isn’t the first time they have seen this type of sickness…it happened before in 1832 and nobody really knew what to do. This time however, a doctor, John Snow, comes with a new idea…

  48. The Cholera Story • He thought that if he checked the city’s death records and mapped out exactly where people were living when they died, he might find some clues as to what was causing the disease and therefore how to stop it from spreading any further.

  49. The Cholera Story – Mapping Death • With this idea came the birth of early epidemiology…you are now going to take on the role of John Snow and map death to find out how you can stop the spread!! • When you are done, put your completed map and analysis in the basket!

  50. Warm-Up • Update your Table of Contents/Notebook – tape your Mapping Death assignment on page 16 • If you have a phone or iPad, download the free Scan app IF YOU ARE ALLOWED • Draw a T-chart on page 17 – title it Epidemic vs. Pandemic