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Motivation. Psychology 1107. Introduction. A need or desire that seems to energize behaviour The notion of ‘instinct’ is popular Fixed unlearned pattern Suck reflex for example Today it is more common to speak of drives and incentives. Drives and incentives.

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Psychology 1107

  • A need or desire that seems to energize behaviour
  • The notion of ‘instinct’ is popular
    • Fixed unlearned pattern
    • Suck reflex for example
  • Today it is more common to speak of drives and incentives
drives and incentives
Drives and incentives
  • Centerpiece of drive reduction theory
  • Physiological need creates an aroused psychological state
  • Homeostasis is the key
  • Sort of like a thermometer
  • Maslow said we have a hierarchy of needs
  • Physiological
  • Safety
  • Belongingness
  • Esteem
  • Self-actualization
  • So why do people go on hunger strikes?
  • May not be quite so hierarchical
  • Stomach contractions make you ‘feel hungry’
  • Hmm, but people and animals without a stomach still feel hungry!
  • You can get specific hungers
    • Sweet
    • Carbs
    • Sodium
    • potassium
  • In general, your brain monitors your body chemistry
  • Activity in lateral hypothalamus brings on hunger
  • Ventromedial stop eating
  • Info sent from hypothalamus to other brain regions, from hypothalamus to brain areas
  • Sweet and fat foods taste good for a reason, but, there are also cultural effects
eating disorders
Eating disorders
  • Anorexia
  • Bulimia
  • Bulimics are more likely to come from families of alcoholics, obese families or depressed families
  • Anorexics are more likely to be high achievers
  • Genetic factors
  • NOT childhood sexual abuse
  • Cultural effects
sexual motivation
Sexual motivation
  • Scientific study of sex was for the most part nonexistent until 1948
  • Kinsey and Pommeroy
  • Major findings
    • Premarital sex
    • Masturbation
    • Homosexuality
    • Prostitutes
    • variety
the kinsey report
The Kinsey report
  • Somewhat odd interviewing techniques
  • Lousy sample
  • Got in trouble with the volume about females (everyone ‘knew’ men thought about sex, but not women!!)
  • While Kinsey’s methods were suspect, they were WAY better than the junk in Magazines and the Hite report
  • Some interesting tidbits from recent (good) surveys
    • 91% of people are faithful to their partner
    • 98% have been faithful in the last year!
physiology of sex
Physiology of sex
  • And you thought Kinsey was controversial…
  • Masters and Johnson (1966)
  • They um err umm, watched people..
  • Sexual response cycle
    • Excitement
    • Plateau
    • Orgasm
    • Resolution
    • Refractory
hormonal effects
Hormonal effects
  • Women have somewhat ‘more’ sex drive during ovulation
    • Correlated with estrogen
  • Men have much less cycling
    • However, testosterone leads to arousal leads to testosterone.
  • Unlike say hunger or thirst there is no ‘need’ per se
  • External stimuli are important
    • Both males and females react most to depictions of an explicit nature
    • Hmm, does it lead to impossible expectations?
  • Imagined stimuli important too
    • Dreams
    • fantasies
  • 3-4% of males, about 1 % of females are homosexual exclusively
  • You do NOT choose to be gay or straight
  • Probably determined in vivo
  • Brain organization
  • Genetic factors
  • Ok, so we’ve eaten, had sex, what’s next?
  • Refer back to Maslow
  • People with a high need to achieve tend to achieve more
  • Have reasonable and reachable goals
  • High achievement motivation often linked to parental behaviour
  • Intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation
  • How do we motivate?
    • Cultivate intrinsic motivation
    • Keep ‘em curious
    • Avoid heavy reliance on extrinsic motivation
    • Informing is better than controlling
    • Attend to motives
    • Reasonable challenging goals