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Motivation
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Motivation

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  1. Motivation

  2. Motivation Background Theories • Traditional approach • Frederick Taylor – incentive pay • People can be motivated to do anything if the pay is right • Human Relations approach • Make people feel important and in control • Human Resources approach • Encourage participation • Create productive work environment

  3. Content Perspectives • Looks to answer, “what factors motivate people?” • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Physiological – lowest level • Security • Belongingness • Esteem • Self-actualization – highest level • ERG Theory (3 levels) • Existence needs • Relatedness needs • Growth needs • May regress if higher needs not met

  4. Motivation Factors(satisfiers – address 2nd) Achievements Recognition The work itself Responsibility Advancement & growth If have these, then one will be more satisfied and motivated Hygiene Factors(dissatisfiers – address 1st) Work conditions Pay and security Supervisors Interpersonal relations Policies and admin If don’t have these, one is dissatisfied Hertzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

  5. Individual Needs Practice • Need for achievement • Want visible recognition • 10% of U.S. population • Need for affiliation • Want to acceptance and to belong • Need for power • Want to control others

  6. Expectation Theory • Motivation depends upon: • How much we want something • How likely we think we are to get it • Examples • VP job, mail clerk, supervisory job • Effort -> Performance -> Outcomes/Valences • Effort-to-Performance Expectancy (0-1) • Performance-to-Outcome Expectancy (0-1) • Range of outcomes and values (valences) • E.g. pay raise, time off, promotion, praise • Examples

  7. Porter-Lawler Extensionof Expectation Theory • Say good performance may lead to satisfaction • Performance leads to • Extrinsic rewards (pay and promotion) • Intrinsic rewards (self-esteem) • One then compares rewards to effort put in • If rewards are equitable with the effort • Then employee is satisfied

  8. Equity Theory • People are motivated to seek social equity in their rewards • Treatment needs to be fair • People compare output/input • Don’t need to have same outcomes • As long as outcome relative to input is same • If one feels things are not equitable • May reduce input

  9. Goal Setting Theory • Assumes behavior is a result of conscious goals • Is it? • Goal characteristics • Goal difficulty • Goal specificity • (think SMART goals)

  10. Behavior Modification • Positive reinforcement • Awards, praise, raises • Negative reinforcement • Reprimands • Punishment • Employee will practice avoidance • Can do on certain schedules • Most powerful is a variable-ratio schedule

  11. Applying the Theories • Empowerment • Let workers set own goals, make decisions • Empowerment • Give workers a say in decisions • Boss becomes a ‘coach’ • Must be • Sincere • Committed • Patient

  12. Alternative Work Arrangements • Compressed work schedule • E.g. 40 hours in 4 days • Nine-eighty – 80 hours in 9 days • Flexible work schedules • Core hours • Job sharing • Telecommuting

  13. Reward Systems • Merit pay • Incentive plans • Piece-rate incentive • Part of compensation at risk • Sales commissions • Bonuses • May have corporate and individual components • Time off • Many people want visible rewards

  14. Team and Group Awards • Gainsharing plans • Share cost savings with employees • Awards • Plaque • Parking places • Profit sharing • ESOP • Stock options

  15. Executive Compensation • Base salary • Bonus • Deferred compensation • Stock • Stock options • Golden parachutes