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Warm Up. Give the formula that will result from reacting the following ions: Na + , O 2- Al 3+, Cl - Mg 2+ , N 3- Al 3+ , S 2- Ca + , Br -. Na 2 O sodium oxide AlCl 3 aluminum chloride Mg 3 N 2 magnesium nitride

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Warm up
Warm Up

Give the formula that will result from reacting the

following ions:

Na+, O2-

Al3+, Cl-

Mg2+, N3-

Al3+, S2-

Ca+, Br -

Na2O sodium oxide

AlCl3 aluminum chloride

Mg3N2 magnesium nitride

Al2S3 aluminum sulfide

No such thing as Ca+, can only be 2+ cation

Learning objectives
Learning Objectives

  • Understand how ionic bonds are formed

  • Know that ionic compounds come from cation and anion attraction to each other

  • Get a feel for the structure and properties of ionic solids

Overview of bonding
Overview of Bonding

  • Chemical bond: attractive force holding two or more atoms together.

  • Covalent bond results from sharing electrons between the atoms. Usually found between nonmetals.

  • Ionic bond results from the transfer of electrons from a metal to a nonmetal.

  • Metallic bond: attractive force holding pure metals together.

Ionic bonds
Ionic Bonds

  • An ionic bond is typically formed between a metal and a non-metal. 

  • Metals have low electronegativities (less than 2.0), while non-metals have high electronegativities (above 2.0).

  • Consequently, the non-metal is "stronger" than the metal, and can steal electrons very easily from the metal. 

  • This results in the metal becoming a cation, and the non-metal becoming an anion.

Ionic bonds3
Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonds are not about sharing electrons rather ….

The more electronegative element (anion to be) simply steals the electron(s) from the more electropositive element (cation to be).

Ionic bonds simple animation
Ionic Bonds-Simple Animation

Sodium Fluoride

Ionic compounds
Ionic Compounds

  • Cations and anions are attracted by electrostatic forces to form ionic bonds

  • Bonding occurs to create an electrically neutral ionic compound

  • Chemical formula for ionic compounds called formula unit

Properties of ionic crystals
Properties of Ionic Crystals

  • Most ionic compounds are crystals at room temperature

  • Attraction of + and - ions results in a stable structure = high melting temperature

Ionic vs covalent
Ionic vs. Covalent Ionic CovalentCompounds Compounds

  • Crystalline solids

  • High melting and boiling points

  • Conduct electricity when melted

  • Many soluble in water but not in nonpolar liquid

  • Gases, liquids, or solids

  • Low melting and boiling points-moth balls

  • Poorelectrical conductors

  • Many soluble in nonpolar liquids but not in water

Coordination number
Coordination Number

  • Coordination number is the number of ions of opposite charge that surround the ion in a crystal

Pretty ionic solids
Pretty Ionic Solids

CaF2 (fluorite)

HgS (cinnabar)

FeS2 (pyrite)

PbMoO4 (wulfenite)

CaCO3 (aragonite)

TiO2 (rutile)