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The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. ISS World History 10. Trans-Atlantic Slave Destinations. The Slave Trade. Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans. Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans. Sugar cane & sugar plantations.

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The Trans-Atlantic

Slave Trade

ISS World History 10

The Slave Trade
  • Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans.
  • Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans.
    • Sugar cane & sugar plantations.
    • First boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in 1518.
    • 275,000 enslaved Africans exportedto other countries.
  • Between 16c & 19c, an estimated 10-13 million Africans shipped to the Americas.
triangular trade
Triangular Trade
  • The Atlantic slave trade formed one part of a three legged trade network called triangular trade.
  • Step 1: Merchant ships brought manufactured goods to Africa to be traded for slaves.
  • Step 2: (Middle Passage) Slaves transported to West Indies where they were exchanged for raw materials such as sugar, molasses, tobacco, cotton, and other products.
  • Step 3: These raw materials were shipped back to Europe or European colonies in the Americas.
the middle passage
The Middle Passage
  • For enslaved Africans, the Middle Passage was horrible.
  • Once sold, Africans were crammed below the decks of slave ships.
  • Hundreds of men, women and children were packed into a single vessel.
  • Up to half of the Africans on board died from disease or brutal treatment.
  • Some enslaved Africans resisted, trying to seize control of the ship. Others committed suicide by jumping overboard.
Slave Ship

“Middle Passage”

African CaptivesThrown Overboard

Sharks followed the slave ships!

first hand accounts of the middle passage
First hand accounts of the Middle Passage
  • The following account was published in 1788 by Alexander Falconbridge, a doctor who served as surgeon on a slave ship.
  • “They are commonly fed twice a day. Their food is served up to them in tubs, about the size of a small water bucket. They are placed round these tubs in companies of ten to each tub, out of which they feed themselves with wooden spoons. These they soon lose, and when they are not allowed other, they feed themselves with their hands. Their allowance of water is about half a pint each at every meal.”
  • Upon the Negroes refusing to take sustenance, I have seen coals of fire, glowing hot, put on a shovel and placed so near their lips, as to scorch and burn them. And this has been accompanied with threats, of forcing them to swallow the coals, if they any longer persisted in refusing to eat.”
  • Exercise being deemed necessary for the preservation of their health, they are sometimes obliged to dance when the weather will permit their coming on deck, If they go about it reluctantly, or do not move with agility, they are flogged; a person standing by them with a cat-o’-nine-tails in his hand for that purpose.”
impact of the atlantic slave trade
Impact of the Atlantic Slave Trade
  • In 1500’s, estimated 2000 Africans were sent to the Americas each year
  • By the 1780’s, the slave trade was at its peak, and 80,000 slaves were sent each year.
  • By the mid 1800’s, the overseas slave trade had finally stopped, and an estimated 10-13 million Africans had reached the Americas.
  • Another 2 million probably died under the brutal conditions of the middle passage.
effects of african slavery
Effects of African Slavery
  • Caused decline of some African states and the rise of others
  • In West Africa, the loss of countless numbers of young women and men resulted in some small states disappearing forever.
  • Also, some new African states arose whose way of life depended on the slave trade.
  • The rulers of those powerful new states waged war against other Africans so they could gain control of the slave trade in their region and reap the profits.
Using your class notes and textbook, write a ONE PAGE summary on the effects that triangular trade had on the Americas, Europe, and Africa.

*use as many specific examples as possible.