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Chapter 1. Introduction to Chemistry. Vanessa N. Prasad- Permaul CHM 1025 Valencia Community College. Evolution of Chemistry. The Greeks believed in four basic elements: 1. Earth Air Fire Water All substances were combinations of these four basic elements.

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Presentation Transcript
Chapter 1

Introduction to


Vanessa N. Prasad-Permaul

CHM 1025

Valencia Community College

evolution of chemistry
Evolution of Chemistry
  • The Greeks believed in four basic elements:

1. Earth

      • Air
      • Fire
      • Water
  • All substances were combinations of these four basic elements.
scientific investigations
Scientific Investigations
  • Science is the methodical exploration of nature followed by a logical explanation of the observations.
  • Scientific investigation entails the following activities:
    • Planning an investigation
    • Carefully recording observations
    • Gathering data
    • Analyzing the results
the scientific method
The Scientific Method
  • The scientific methodis a systematic investigation of nature and requires proposing an explanation for the results of an experiment in the form of a general principle.
  • The initial, tentative proposal of a scientific principle is called a hypothesis.
  • After further investigation, the original hypothesis may be rejected, revised, or elevated to the status of a scientific principle.
applying the scientific method
Applying the Scientific Method

Step 1: Perform a planned experiment, make observations, and record data.

Step 2: Analyze the data and propose a tentative hypothesis to explain the experimental observations.

Step 3: Conduct additional experiments to test the hypothesis. If the evidence supports the initial proposal, the hypothesis may become a theory.

applying the scientific method continued
Applying the Scientific Method, Continued
  • After sufficient evidence, a hypothesis becomes a scientific theory.
  • A natural law is a measurable relationship.
critical thinking reactions with oxygen
Critical Thinking: Reactions with Oxygen

What do burning wood, rusting iron, and exploding gasoline have in common?

  • All three are examples of combustion.
  • Combustion is a chemical reaction of a substance with oxygen.
  • Rusting is a slow reaction, burning is a rapid reaction, and an explosion is an instantaneous reaction.
modern chemistry
Modern Chemistry
  • Chemistry is a science that studies the composition of matter and its properties.
  • Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) said to be the founder
  • Chemistry is divided into several branches:
    • Organic chemistry is the study of substances containing carbon.
    • Inorganic chemistry is the study of all other substances that don’t contain carbon.
    • Biochemistry is the study of substances derived from plants and animals.
learning chemistry
Learning Chemistry
  • Different people learn chemistry differently.
  • What do you see in the picture?
  • Some people see a vase on a dark background; some people see two faces.
problem solving
Problem Solving
  • Experiment until you find a solution.
  • Did you have to use five straight lines?
  • No matter which dot we start with, we still need five lines.
  • Connect the dots using only four straight lines.
problem solving continued
Problem Solving, Continued
  • Are we confining the problem?
  • We need to go beyond the nine dots to answer the problem.
chemistry the central science
Chemistry: The Central Science
  • Knowledge of chemistry is important to understanding the world around us.
chapter summary
Chapter Summary
  • Science began with the ancient Chinese, Egyptian and Greek civilization
  • Ancient chemistry is based on speculation
  • Modern chemistry is based on scientific method
  • Robert Boyle founded the scientific method
  • The major components of the scientific method is:
      • Experiment
      • Hypothesis
      • Scientific Theory
      • Natural Law
chapter summary1
Chapter Summary
  • Scientists use the scientific method to investigate the world around them.
  • Experiments lead to a hypothesis, which may lead to a scientific theory or a natural law.
  • Chemistry is a central science with many branches.
  • The impact of chemistry is felt in many aspects of our daily lives.


The principal difference is that modern chemistry is founded on the scientific method. Ancient chemistry was based on speculation, while modern chemistry is based on planned experiments and the analysis of data.

EXAMPLE 1.1Introduction to Chemistry

What is the difference between ancient chemistry and modern chemistry?


Practice Exercise

What question can we ask to distinguish

between a scientific theory and a

natural law?

Answer: We can distinguish a theory from a law by asking the question, “Is the proposed statement measurable?” If we take measurements and verify a relationship by a mathematical equation, the statement is a law; if not, it is a theory.


Concept Exercise

Which of the line segments in the image below

appears to be longer, AB or BC?



The earliest concept of science began in the civilizations of which countries?

  • Austria, France, and Germany
  • China, Egypt, and Greece
  • England, Italy, and Sweden
  • United States, Canada, and Japan


Modern chemistry mainly differs from ancient chemistry in the

  • application of scientific method.
  • availability of laboratories.
  • number of known elements.
  • use of computers.

Chapter 1



Which is not a component of the scientific method?

  • belief
  • experiment
  • hypothesis
  • scientific theory


Which component of the scientific method never changes?

  • experiment
  • hypothesis
  • natural law
  • scientific theory


Who is considered the founder of modern chemistry?

  • Bunsen
  • Lavoisier
  • Einstein
  • Plato