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Earth’s Interior. C hapter 1 Section 1. Guide for Reading. What does a Geologist do?. What are the characteristics of Earth’s crust , mantle , and core ?. The Science of Geology. Geology is the study of planet Earth.

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Earth’s Interior

Chapter 1 Section 1

Guide for Reading

What does a Geologist do?

What are the characteristics of Earth’s crust, mantle, and core?

The Science of Geology

Geologyis the study of planet Earth.

Geologists are scientists who study the processes that create Earth’s features and search for clues about Earth’s history.

Surface Changes

Forces are constantly changing the surface of the Earth

Earth looks different today than it did millions of years ago.

Constructive forces shape the surface by building up mountains and landmasses

Constructive forces = Build up


The deepest mine in the world is only 2.4 miles deep.

The center of the Earth is over 3728 miles deep!

Scientists use seismic waves to infer what the interior of earth is composed of.

Seismicwaves are energy waves that travel through Earth’s interior during earthquakes

Earth has three major layers

1. The Lithosphere

2. The Mantle

3. The Core

The Lithosphere

The Lithosphereis the layer of the Earth that includes the Crust and the Upper Mantle

Lithosphere = Crust + Upper Mantle!

By the way, there are two types of crust, continental crust and oceanic crust.

Continental crust is mostly made of the rock Granite. It is not very dense but very thick!

Oceanic crust is mostly made of the rock Basalt. It is thinbut very dense!

The Upper Mantle is just hot solid rock

The Mantle

The Asthenosphere is the softer part of the Mantle. The rocks here are melted and can slowly stretch and flow. Under this layer the mantle becomes solid.


The Outer Core is liquid metal (iron and nickel).

The Inner Core is solid metal (iron and nickel).