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By: Thomas Atchley. Earth and Space. Begin Here. Earth. Space. Quiz. Credits. Earth. Layers of the Earth. Tectonic Plates. Home Page. Layers of the Earth. 4 major layers of the Earth: Crust Mantle Outer Core Inner Core. Crust. The outermost layer

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Earth and Space


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    1. By: Thomas Atchley Earth and Space Begin Here

    2. Earth Space Quiz Credits

    3. Earth Layers of the Earth Tectonic Plates Home Page

    4. Layers of the Earth • 4 major layers of the Earth: • Crust • Mantle • Outer Core • Inner Core

    5. Crust • The outermost layer • Consists of all Continents and the Oceans. • It ranges from 35-75 kilometers in continental regions, and it ranges from 5-10 kilometers in oceanic regions. • Mostly solid and contains much aluminum elements

    6. Mantle • Next layer after the Crust • Is about 2900 kilometers thick. The thickest layer in the Earth • Where most of Earth’s internal heat is located • Composed mainly of magnesium • The main cause for tectonic processes on the surface (ex. Volcano eruptions, plate movements, etc..)

    7. Outer Core • The next layer after the Mantle. • It is liquid compared to the solid Inner Core • About 2300 kilometers thick • Composed of metal liquid that is a Nickel-Iron alloy • Controls Earth’s magnetic field

    8. Inner Core • Next layer after Outer Core. • It is a solid layer, consisting of mainly Iron. • About 1200 kilometers thick • Produces the majority of Earth’s gravitational force

    9. Layers of the Earth

    10. Physical Properties of Earth • Earth is composed of 3 main types of rocks. • Igneous Rocks • Sedimentary Rocks • Metamorphic Rocks

    11. Igneous Rocks • Form from the direct cooling of Magma. • Involves phase change from liquid phase to the solid phase. • This is what the surface of Earth is mostly made out of. (The area that makes contact with space) • Rocks form small crystals that are visible to naked eye.

    12. Sedimentary Rocks • Collection of rocks that are cemented together. • They are often made up of parts of Rock that have been broken off other rocks. • They are secondary to igneous rocks, because they are usually located just below the surface of Earth where sediments gather.

    13. Metamorphic Rocks • “Meta” means change, “Morphic” means form. • Any rock can become metamorphic. • It must go through intense heat and pressure which forces the rocks together. Not cemented like Sedimentary.

    14. Tectonic Plates • In the picture you can see 7 of the major tectonic plates and the directions they are moving on the surface of the Earth.

    15. Collision of Plates On the map, where you see arrows pointing at each other, this is where plates collide. This can cause the plate to both rise with each other, forming mountain ranges, or they can both go down, forming deep sea trenches. When one plate goes over another plate, this is a subduction zone. This cause many earthquakes and tremors. Picture of Plates

    16. Pulling Apart of Plates When the plates pull apart, this causes the sea floor to crack. This process is called sea floor spreading. When this happens, it opens up cracks where the cold sea water and meet with the hot magma of the mantle. This can result in under water volcanoes. Picture of Plates

    17. Sliding Plates When two plates slide against each other, this creates intense movement along the sea floor. Sometimes plates can move up or down multiple meters due to this. When the seafloor jumps in elevation this cause giant tidal waves to be created on the surface, resulting in Tsunami’s. Picture of Plates

    18. Space Planets Exploration/Gravity Home Page

    19. Gravity Gravity is the force that hold out entire solar system together. Without gravity our planets would not rotate or spin the way they do. All objects in space have gravity. They have mass based on certain concentration they contain in their bodies. The larger and more dense and object, the more gravity that object produces. Our Sun is so large and dense, it is able to hold all objects in our solar system together. Objects gravity depends on their inner core and it’s denseness. This is why they can hold moons.

    20. Exploration History 1942: The first rocket was launched into space, reaching 100 kilometers. Designed by the German Wernher Von Braun, who later worked for NASA.

    21. Exploration History 1949: The first monkey was sent into space. He went into space June 14th and traveled 83 miles from Earth

    22. Exploration History October 4th 1957: Russia launched the first orbiting satellite, “Sputnik” into space. This marked the beginning of the Space Race.

    23. Exploration History 1959: Russians landed on the moon with Space probe Luna-2. It crashed so hard, that if a human had been on the craft, they would have died on the impact.

    24. Exploration History April 12th 1961: Russians launched the first man into space. Russian Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin did one full orbit around the Earth, but had to eject because the craft was designed to crash land!

    25. Exploration History 1966 President Kennedy promised we would land on the moon before 1970. US robotic spacecraft Surveyor 1 made it’s second successful landing on the Moon. It transmitted pictures of the moon back to NASA.

    26. Exploration History July 20th 1969: US spacecraft, Apollo 11, landed on the moon. The first successful landing of a manned spacecraft. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin were the first to men on the moon.

    27. Exploration History 1970: Apollo 13 had an in space explosion, the men onboard improvised and were able to return safely without ever landing on the moon. 1986: Space Shuttle Challenger exploded shortly after take off, killing all astronauts that were on board.

    28. Exploration History 2000: The first crew moved into the International Space Station where crews of astronauts have been living ever since.

    29. Exploration Future 2004: President George Bush announced that NASA would begin research to build a permanent moon base in which they should be ready to begin Moon missions in 2020. The next manned mission should be to Mars. That means those astronauts are children today!

    30. Planets • The 8 planets of our Solar System in order from closest to the Sun. • Mercury • Venus • Earth • Mars • Jupiter • Saturn • Uranus • Neptune

    31. Sun • Has a diameter of 1,390,000 kilometers. The largest object in the Solar System by far! • It contains about 99.8% of the mass accounted for in our Solar System. • This explains why the gravity is so much more than everything else in the Solar System. • The surface of the Sun rotates in about 25 days around it’s equator, and as much as 36 days around it’s poles. • This rotation of the surface is known as Differential Rotation. • The surface of the Sun has a temperature that ranges from 5800K to about 3800K. Which explains the heat produced.

    32. Mercury • The closest planet to the Sun, and the smallest of all planets. • 57,910,000 Kilometers away from the Sun, and about 4,880KM in diameter. • The temperature of this planet varies the most compared to all other planets in the Solar System. • Temperature ranges from 90K to 700K • The rotation of Mercury is very slow. It only rotates a total of 3 times in the amount of time it takes to orbit the Sun in 2 years. • So when Mercury travels around the Sun 2 times, it will have spun on it’s axis only 3 times.

    33. Venus • Venus is the second planet from the Sun and the 6th largest. • 108,200,000 kilometers from the Sun, and 12,103 KM in diameter. • Venus also rotates very slowly, it is 243 Earth days compared to 1 Venus day. • In addition, the rotations of Earth an Venus are somewhat synchronized, Venus shows the same face of the planet every time Earth an Venus are at their closest point in their orbits. • Venus is also covered in surface volcanoes that are similar to the Hawaiian Volcanoes. One famous volcano is Sif Mons.

    34. Earth • The 3rd planet from the Sun and the fifth largest planet. • 149,600,000 Kilometers from the Sun, and 12,756 KM in diameter. • Earth is divided into several layers, and each provides different properties. • These are discussed in the EARTH section of the lesson. • Earth only has one satellite which is the Moon.

    35. Mars • Mars is the 4th planet from the Sun and the 7th largest. • 227,940,000 Kilometers from the Sun, and 6,794 KM in diameter. • Mars has the most variety in it’s surface as far as all the planets go. • Olympus Mons: the largest mountain in the Solar System, 24 KM high and 500 KM in diameter. • Tharsis: a huge bulge about 4000KM wide and 10 KM high. (plateau) • Valles Marineris: a system of canyons about 4000KM long and 2-7 KM deep. • Hellas Planitia: a huge impact crater about 6KM deep and 2000KM wide. • Mars has 2 tiny satellites that orbit very close to the Martian surface.

    36. Jupiter • Jupiter is the 5th planet from the Sun, and the largest by far. It is twice the size of all other planets combined. • 778,330,000 kilometers from the Sun, and 142,984 KM in diameter. • Jupiter is a gas planet, about 90% Hydrogen, and 10% Helium. • Great Red Spot: There is a red spot on Jupiter that is about 12,000km x 25,000KM, making it over twice the size of Earth. All that is known is that the spot is created by high pressure amount from the Planet. • Have 63 moons, and 4 major Galilean Moons. (significantly larger) • Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto. • These help regulate the gravitational force of Jupiter.

    37. Saturn • Saturn is the 6th planet from the Sun and the 2nd largest. • 1,429,400,000 Kilometers from the Sun, and 120,536 KM in diameter. • Saturn is a gas planet, about 75% Hydrogen, and 25%Helium, with traces of water. Also it has 53 moons. • Saturn’s Rings: • The rings are about 250,000KM wide, and less than 1 KM thick. • So little is actually known about the rings, except they are made of particles of planets and rocks of some sort. • The rings are held together due to the gravitational force of 3 sets of moons. • These 6 moons are perfectly positioned that the rings hold together. • Mimas-Tethys, Enceladus-Dione, and Titan-Hyperion. These are the moons.

    38. Uranus • Uranus is the 7th planet from the Sun, and the 3rd largest. • 2,870,990,000 Kilometers from the Sun, and 51,118 KM in diameter • Uranus is composed mainly of rock covered in Ice. It contains about 15% Hydrogen, and very little Helium. • Uranus rings: • The rings of Uranus are a particularly important discovery of all planets. It assures us that it is a common feature that multiple planets do have rings, and is not a “special” case for Saturn alone. • Has 27 moons.

    39. Neptune • Neptune is the 8th planet from the Sun, and the 4th largest. • 4,504,000,000 Kilometers from the Sun, and 49,532 KM in diameter. • Neptune’s surface has severe winds that can reach up to 2,000 KM per hour. • Neptune also has rings, they however, are not full circles, only arch's. • Neptune also has 13 known moons.

    40. Credits • All information about the Planets in the Solar System can be found at: • http://nineplanets.org/ • All pictures of the Planets and Solar System are from NASA images. • All information about Gravity and Space Exploration can be located at NASA’s website: • http://www.nasa.gov/ • Information about the Earth and it’s layers can be found at: • http://scign.jpl.nasa.gov/learn/plate1.htm • Information about rocks and tectonic plates can be found at: • http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/AskGeoMan/geoQuerry13.html • Pictures of rocks can be found at: • http://geology.com/rocks HOME PAGE

    41. Quiz Section!! Space Earth HOME PAGE

    42. Question 1 What is the smallest Planet in the Solar System? a)Pluto b)Earth c)Mercury d)Venus

    43. TRY AGAIN

    44. GOOD JOB

    45. Question 2 Which of the following is a Gas planet? a)Mars b)Jupiter c)Uranus d)Earth

    46. TRY AGAIN

    47. GOOD JOB

    48. Question 3 What year did the U.S.A. land on the moon? a)1970 b)1954 c)1990 d)1969

    49. TRY AGAIN

    50. GOOD JOB