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Earth Science SOL Review

Earth Science SOL Review

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Earth Science SOL Review

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  1. Earth Science SOL Review You should know this vocabulary for each unit!

  2. Introduction to Earth Science Unit

  3. The outermost surface of the Earth; the 2 types are continental and oceanic • Crust

  4. Found between the crust and core of the Earth; convection currents occur here • Mantle

  5. Center of the Earth made of iron and nickel; outer part is a liquid while the inner part is a solid • Core

  6. Upper part of mantle and the crust; broken into slabs called tectonic plates • Lithosphere

  7. Plastic layer of the mantle that the lithosphere rides on; moves at the rate your fingernails grow • Asthenosphere

  8. The shape of the land • Topography

  9. A line on a topographic map that represents a constant elevation; when they are close together it represents a steep slope • Contour Line

  10. The difference in elevation from one contour line to another; a large interval would be used for mountainous areas • Contour Interval

  11. The amount of space on object takes up; units of cm3 or mL; can be determined using water displacement • Volume

  12. The amount of matter in an object; does NOT depend on gravity; measured using grams • Mass

  13. A measure of the gravitational force exerted by an object; depends on gravity • Weight

  14. How compact an object is; calculated as mass divided by volume; units of g/mL or g/cm3 • Density

  15. Lines that run east-west and measure north and south of the equator; called parallels • Latitude

  16. Lines that run north-south and measure east and west of the prime meridian • Longitude

  17. The type of energy that uses a dam • Hydroelectric power

  18. The type of energy that uses heat within the Earth; oftentimes located near plate boundaries • Geothermal power

  19. The type of energy that uses energy from the Sun • Solar power

  20. The type of energy that is renewed within a human lifetime; includes solar, wind, geothermal, and hydroelectric power • Renewable energy

  21. The type of energy that takes a very long time to form; often uses fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas; includes nuclear power and coal burning power plants • Nonrenewable energy

  22. A form of energy that uses radioactive isotopes such as uranium; uses the process of nuclear fission, or the splitting of a nucleus • Nuclear Power

  23. A renewable energy source that uses wind turbines • Wind Power

  24. Rocks and Minerals Unit

  25. A subatomic particle with a positive charge; located in the nucleus of an atom • Proton

  26. A subatomic particle with no charge; located in the nucleus of an atom • Neutron

  27. A subatomic particle with a negative charge; located in the electron cloud of an atom • Electron

  28. An atom that gains or loses one or more electrons and has a charge • Ion

  29. An atom with a different number of neutrons than atoms of the same element; example is carbon-14 (has 2 more neutrons than carbon-12) • Isotope

  30. An object that is inorganic and naturally occurring; also contains crystals and has a consistent internal composition • Mineral

  31. One of the most common silicate minerals that comes in many different colors; used to make glass • Quartz

  32. The mineral that effervesces, or bubbles, in acid; the mineral that makes up limestone • Calcite

  33. The property in which a mineral bubbles in acid; responsible for the formation of caves and sinkholes • Effervescence

  34. The way a mineral reflects light; examples include metallic and glassy • Luster

  35. When a mineral breaks into flat planes; biotite and muscovite exhibit this property • Cleavage

  36. When a mineral breaks unevenly; quartz exhibits this property • Fracture

  37. When a mineral glows under ultraviolet (UV) light; fluorite exhibits this property • Fluorescence

  38. Mineral property involving a scratch test; scale of 1-10 with talc being a 1 and diamond being a 10 • Hardness

  39. The powdered form of a mineral; pyrite, or fool’s gold, exhibits this property • Streak

  40. The process by which rocks change from one type of rock to another • Rock Cycle

  41. Rock formed by the cooling and crystallizing of magma/lava; examples include granite, basalt, pumice, and obsidian • Igneous Rock

  42. Rock formed by the compaction and cementation of sediments; examples include sandstone, shale, conglomerate, and limestone • Sedimentary Rock

  43. Particles formed by the weathering of rocks • Sediments

  44. Type of rock that forms when rock is changed by heat and pressure; examples include marble, quartzite, and gneiss • Metamorphic Rock

  45. Forms when rock melts; molten rock • Magma

  46. Type of igneous rock that forms when magma cools slowly beneath Earth’s surface; rocks have large crystals or coarse texture; example is granite • Intrusive Igneous Rock

  47. Type of igneous rock that forms when lava cools quickly at Earth’s surface; rock has small/no crystals or fine texture; examples include pumice and obsidian • Extrusive Igneous Rock

  48. Metamorphic rock property in which the minerals separate into bands or layers; examples include slate and gneiss • Foliation

  49. Metamorphic rock property in which minerals do NOT separate into bands or layers; examples include marble and quartzite • Nonfoliated

  50. The process in which sediment, such as sand, is laid down in a river, lake, or ocean • Deposition