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Formal Verification of UML Diagrams

Jeffrey Smith: Sanders and Northeastern University

Mieczyslaw Kokar: Northeastern University, College of Engineering

Ken Baclawski: Northeastern University, College of Computer Science

Bridge Between CASE and FormalDevelopment Paradigms

Process

Core MetaModel

UML Graphical Domain

(Application in UML form)

UML Semantics

(UML Semantics Guide contents)

ModelElement

Gen (ME)

4. Map to UML metamodel

Name : Name

- Formalize common CASE spec language (UML),
- Automate transformation from UML to formal representation

Computer-aided

formally-developed

spec/sw

CASE-based

spec/sw

ownedElement

*

namespace

0.1

Translation Example - UML Graphical Domain

Namespace

TR (ME)

Presentation

Course

generalization

1

1..1

2. Automatic translation to Slang

Disadvantages

Advantages

Advantages

Disadvantages

Generalization

GeneralizableElement

pres_ID : String

subtype

*

isRoot : Boolean

isLeaf : Boolean

isAbstract : Boolean

{frozen}

*

supertype

Discriminator : Name

- Complex, diverse and unsupported tools
- Complex languages/math
- Lack of trained engineers
- Unproven scalability

- Provably correct software
- Code generation
- Code refinement
- Theorem proving
- Spec/SW composition

- Uniform graphical user interface
- Modern SE methodologies (OO, state, etc)
- Reverse engineering
- Common large-scale development paradigm

- Inconsistent specification
- “Shell” sw only

specialization

1

1..1

GT (MME)

level

Lecture

Student

1. Formalization of UML

student_collection

student

ID : Integer

*

{ordered}

2

1..1

1

1..*

{ordered}

type

associationEnd

AssociationEnd

*

Instance

Association

1

*

connection

Classifier

classifier

UML Formal Domain

(Application in Slang form)

UML Formal Semantics

(UML semantics in Slang form)

isOrdered : Boolean

aggregation : AggregationKind

mulitplicity : Multiplicity

changeable : ChangeableKind

Motivation

Objective

specification

participant

*

*

- Verification of translation correctness left to tool developers or programmers
- CASE tools don’t enforce syntax/semantics
- CASE tools can only do partial translation to a programming language
- UML is semi-formal and inconsistent

- Develop provably correct UML to formal language translator with respect to UML intended meaning
- Ensure that the class of metamodels of a theory, obtained as a translation of any UML diagram, is a subclass of models of the theory of the UML metamodel
- for each translation:
- UML metamodel theory theory representing UML diagram

Object

3. Find morphisms

type

Attribute

Class

Theorem 1: D ME in D GT(Gen(ME))

Theorem 2: D ME in D M: GT(Gen(ME))|D TR(ME)

Corollary 2.1: D ME M: colimit(GT(Gen(D))) TR(D)

*

1

initialValue : Expr

M is a Morphism; GT is Ground Truth

UML to Formal Spec Translation Rules

Model Element - Spec Rule - Every Model Element in UML, specified in the UML Semantics Guide, translates to a spec containing a sort, both having the same name as the ModelElement.

Specification Constraint to Op/Axiom Rule - For each specification constraint, add an associated op in the spec corresponding to the UML object that contains this specification constraint. Specify the constraint in an axiom associated with the op.

UML Diagram to Colimit of Specs Rule - For each UML diagram, specify each metamodel element, as defined in the previous rules, and build the entire diagram, in a bottom-up fashion, using colimits. Constraints are specified at each level of the construction.

Generalization - Generalization Instance Spec Rule - Translate each generalizable element of a generalization to a separate instance of a generalizable element spec, filling in each of the generalizable element constraints as ops, axioms and theorems of each generalizable element spec. Translate each generalization to a separate instance of a generalization spec, identifying which of the two generalizable element instances represent the subtype and supertype ``is-a" relationship. Form a colimit of the generalizable element subtype and supertype instances with an instance of the GENERALIZABLE ELEMENT- GENERALIZATION-COLIMIT spec (in the UML Formal Semantics), filling in the constraints associated with the generalizable element and generalization relations as ops and axioms.

Association - Association Instance Spec Rule - Translate each association end of an association to a separate instance of an association end spec, filling in each of the association end constraints as ops, axioms and theorems of the association end spec. Translate the association to a separate instance of the association spec, identifying the classifiers associated with each association end as the source and target of the association. Form a diagram, that links the source ASSOCIATIONEND spec with its ASSOCIATION spec, into an instance of the ASSOC-SOURCE diagram, filling in the specs and sorts of the association end and association names with their instantiated values. Similarly, form a diagram, that links the target ASSOCIATIONEND spec with its ASSOCIATION spec, into an instance of the ASSOC-TARGET diagram. Next, form a diagram that combines these two diagrams with diagrams that will link the source and target CLASSIFIER specs with the source and target association ends, respectively. This is done by forming a colimit of these association ends, classifiers and association specs into an instance of the ASSOCIATION-CLASSIFIER-COLIMIT spec, filling in the constraints associated with association end, classifier and association relations, as ops and axioms.

Aggregation - Aggregation Instance Rule - Treat aggregation as an association, labeling the association end corresponding to the aggregate end (the side with the hollow or filled in diamond) with the type of aggregation, according to the UML Semantics Guide.

Class, Instance and Object Formalization Rules - Translate each class to an instance of a class spec, implementing the specialization of the inherited name constraint from the ModelElement metamodel element and the isRoot, isLeaf and isAbstract constraints from the Classifier metamodel element. Translate each instance to an instance of an INSTANCE spec, implementing the specialization of the inherited name constraint from the ModelElement metamodel element. Translate each object to an instance of an OBJECT spec, implementing the specialization of the inherited name constraint from the Instance metamodel element (which, in turn, was inherited from the ModelElement metamodel element).

Attribute Rule - Translate each attribute to an instance of a ATTRIBUTE spec, implementing its specific initialValue constraint and the inherited name constraint from the ModelElement metamodel element. Form a diagram, that links the CLASS spec with its ATTRIBUTE spec, into an instance of the ATTRIBUTE-TYPE diagram (in the UML Formal Semantics), filling in the specs and sorts of the Class and Attribute names with their instantiated values.

Q = {model elements of diagram D},

B = {attributes in D},

S = {association in D}

P = {metamodel elements},

A = {meta-attributes},

R = {meta-associations},

C = {consistency constraints on P, A & R}

One-Step Transformation

dump

parse

: Q P

: B A Q BaseElements,

: S R Q2

UML Diagram Export Format Parse Tree

Intermediate Structure O-Slang Parse Tree

O-Slang Structure Slang Parse Tree

Slang Structure Programming Language Parse Tree

Intermediate Structure Intermediate Code Executable Code

UML Graphical Domain

UML Semantics

symbol table

parse

translate

symbol table

translate

parse

symbol table

- Let D be a UML diagram with respect to the Core Metamodel CM, then:
- Theorem 1: The triple GT = (, , ) is a formalism of CM in Slang
- Theorem 2: There exists a verification morphism from GT to TR(D)
- Corollary 2.1: There exists a verification morphism from
- colimit({(q) | q Q} | D) to colimit({((q)) | q Q} | D)

parse

code generate

Q B S

symbol table

P A R

optimize

generate

TR =

GT=

Transformation Pipeline

spec op diagram

spec op diagram

UML Diagram

Intermediate Structure (REI Model)

Slang Structure Programming Language Parse Tree

Intermediate Structure Intermediate Code Executable Code

Simplified Transformation Pipeline

translate

UML Formal Domain

UML Formal Semantics

parse

code generate

TR(D) GT

(Q)

symbol table

colimit({(q) | q Q} | D) colimit({((q)) | q Q} | D)

optimize

generate

Correctness Theorem Refinement

Translation Example - UML Formal Domain

Translation Example - UML Formal Semantics

spec LECTURE is

sort Lecture

op name: Lecture -> String

axiom fa(a: Lecture) name(a) = "Lecture"

theorem Lecture-name is

fa(a: Lecture, b: Lecture)

(name(a) = "Lecture" & name(b) = "Lecture")

op isLeaf: Lecture -> Boolean

axiom fa(a: Lecture) isLeaf(a) = true

theorem Lecture-isLeaf is

fa(a: Lecture, b: Lecture)

(isLeaf(a) = true & isLeaf(b) = true)

op isRoot: Lecture -> Boolean

axiom fa(a: Lecture) isRoot(a) = false

theorem Lecture-isRoot is

fa(a: Lecture, b: Lecture)

(isRoot(a) = false & isRoot(b) = false)

op isAbstract: Lecture -> Boolean

axiom fa(a: Lecture) isAbstract(a) = false

theorem Lecture-isAbstract is

fa(a: Lecture, b: Lecture)

(isAbstract(a) = false & isAbstract(b) = false)

end-spec

spec COURSE is

sort Course

op name: Course -> String

axiom fa(a: Course) name(a) = "Course"

theorem Course-name is

fa(a: Course, b: Course)

(name(a) = "Course" & name(b) = "Course")

op isLeaf: Course -> Boolean

axiom fa(a: Course) isLeaf(a) = true

theorem Course-isLeaf is

fa(a: Course, b: Course)

(isLeaf(a) = true & isLeaf(b) = true)

op isRoot: Course -> Boolean

axiom fa(a: Course) isRoot(a) = true

theorem Course-isRoot is

fa(a: Course, b: Course)

(isRoot(a) = true & isRoot(b) = true)

op isAbstract: Course -> Boolean

axiom fa(a: Course) isAbstract(a) = false

theorem Course-isAbstract is

fa(a: Course, b: Course)

(isAbstract(a) = false & isAbstract(b) = false)

end-spec

spec PRESENTATION is

sort Presentation

op name: Presentation -> String

axiom fa(a: Presentation) name(a) =

"Presentation"

theorem Presentation-name is

fa(a: Presentation, b: Presentation)

(name(a) = "Presentation" & name(b) = "Presentation")

op isLeaf: Presentation -> Boolean

axiom fa(a: Presentation) isLeaf(a) = false

theorem Presentation-isLeaf is

fa(a: Presentation, b: Presentation)

(isLeaf(a) = false & isLeaf(b) = false)

op isRoot: Presentation -> Boolean

axiom fa(a: Presentation) isRoot(a) = true

theorem Presentation-isRoot is

fa(a: Presentation, b: Presentation)

(isRoot(a) = true & isRoot(b) = true)

op isAbstract: Presentation -> Boolean

axiom fa(a: Presentation) isAbstract(a) = true

theorem Presentation-isAbstract is

fa(a: Presentation, b: Presentation)

(isAbstract(a) = true & isAbstract(b) = true)

end-spec

spec STUDENT is

sort Student

op name: Student -> String

axiom fa(a: Student) name(a) = "Student"

theorem Student-name is

fa(a: Student, b: Student)

(name(a) = "Student" & name(b) = "Student")

op isLeaf: Student -> Boolean

axiom fa(a: Student) isLeaf(a) = true

theorem Student-isLeaf is

fa(a: Student, b: Student)

(isLeaf(a) = true & isLeaf(b) = true)

op isRoot: Student -> Boolean

axiom fa(a: Student) isRoot(a) = true

theorem Student-isRoot is

fa(a: Student, b: Student)

(isRoot(a) = true & isRoot(b) = true)

op isAbstract: Student -> Boolean

axiom fa(a: Student) isAbstract(a) = false

theorem Student-isAbstract is

fa(a: Student, b: Student)

(isAbstract(a) = false & isAbstract(b) = false)

end-spec

spec PRES_ID-ATTRIBUTE is

sort pres_ID-attribute

op name: pres_ID-attribute -> String

axiom fa(a: pres_ID-attribute) name(a) = "pres_ID"

theorem pres_ID-name is

fa(a: pres_ID-attribute, b: pres_ID-attribute)

(name(a) = "pres_ID" & name(b) = "pres_ID")

op pres_ID: pres_ID-attribute -> String

axiom fa(a: pres_ID-attribute) pres_ID(a) = ""

theorem pres_ID-initialValue is

fa(a: pres_ID-attribute, b: pres_ID-attribute)

(pres_ID(a) = "" & pres_ID(b) = "")

end-spec

diagram PRES_ID-ATTRIBUTE is

nodes T1: TRIV, T2: TRIV, PAIR, PRESENTATION,

PRES_ID-ATTRIBUTE

arcs

T1 -> PRESENTATION: {e -> Presentation},

T1 -> PAIR: {e -> Left},

T1 -> PAIR: {e -> Right},

T1 -> PRES_ID-ATTRIBUTE: {e -> pres_ID-attribute}

end-diagram

spec ID-ATTRIBUTE is

sort ID-attribute

op name: ID-attribute -> String

axiom fa(a: ID-attribute) name(a) = "ID"

theorem ID-name is

fa(a: ID-attribute, b: ID-attribute)

(name(a) = "ID" & name(b) = "ID")

op ID: ID-attribute -> Integer

axiom fa(a: ID-attribute) ID(a) = ""

theorem ID-initialValue is

fa(a: ID-attribute, b: ID-attribute)

(pres_ID(a) = "" & pres_ID(b) = "")

end-spec

diagram ID-ATTRIBUTE is

nodes T1: TRIV, T2: TRIV, PAIR, STUDENT, ID-ATTRIBUTE

arcs

T1 -> STUDENT: {e -> Student},

T1 -> PAIR: {e -> Left},

T1 -> PAIR: {e -> Right},

T1 -> ID-ATTRIBUTE: {e -> ID-attribute}

end-diagram

spec LECTURE-AE-STUDENT is

sort Lecture-AE-Student

op name: Lecture-AE-Student -> String

axiom fa(a: Lecture-AE-Student) name(a) = "student_collection"

theorem Lecture-AE-Student-name is

fa(a: Lecture-AE-Student, b: Lecture-AE-Student)

(name(a) = "student_collection" & name(b) =

"student_collection")

op multiplicity: Lecture-AE-Student -> Nat, Nat

axiom fa(a: Lecture-AE-Student) multiplicity(a) = (1,1)

theorem Lecture-AE-Student-multiplicity is

fa(a: Lecture-AE-Student, b: Lecture-AE-Student)

(multiplicity(a) = (1,1) & multiplicity(b) = (1,1))

op isNavigable: Lecture-AE-Student -> Boolean

axiom fa(a: Lecture-AE-Student) isNavigable(a) = true

theorem Lecture-AE-Student-isNavigable is

fa(a: Lecture-AE-Student, b: Lecture-AE-Student)

(isNavigable(a) = true & isNavigable(b) = true)

op aggregate: Lecture-AE-Student -> String

axiom fa(a: Lecture-AE-Student) aggregate(a) = "aggregate"

theorem Lecture-AE-Student-aggregate is

fa(a: Lecture-AE-Student, b: Lecture-AE-Student)

(aggregate(a) = "aggregate" & aggregate(b) = "aggregate")

op changeable: Lecture-AE-Student -> String

axiom fa(a: Lecture-AE-Student) changeable(a) = "none"

theorem Lecture-AE-Student-changeable is

fa(a: Lecture-AE-Student, b: Lecture-AE-Student)

(changeable(a) = "none" & changeable(b) = "none")

op isOrdered: Lecture-AE-Student -> Boolean

axiom fa(a: Lecture-AE-Student) isOrdered(a) = false

theorem Lecture-AE-Student-isOrdered is

fa(a: Lecture-AE-Student, b: Lecture-AE-Student)

(isOrdered(a) = false & isOrdered(b) = false)

end-spec

spec STUDENT-AE-LECTURE is

sort Student-AE-Lecture

op name: Student-AE-Lecture -> String

axiom fa(a: Student-AE-Lecture) name(a) = "student"

theorem Student-AE-Lecture-name is

fa(a: Student-AE-Lecture, b: Student-AE-Lecture)

(name(a) = "student" & name(b) = "student")

op multiplicity: Student-AE-Lecture -> Nat, Nat

axiom fa(a: Student-AE-Lecture) multiplicity(a) = (0,*)

theorem Student-AE-Lecture-multiplicity is

fa(a: Student-AE-Lecture, b: Student-AE-Lecture)

(multiplicity(a) = (0,*) & multiplicity(b) = (0,*))

op isNavigable: Student-AE-Lecture -> Boolean

axiom fa(a: Student-AE-Lecture) isNavigable(a) = true

theorem Student-AE-Lecture-isNavigable is

fa(a: Student-AE-Lecture, b: Student-AE-Lecture)

(isNavigable(a) = true & isNavigable(b) = true)

op aggregate: Student-AE-Lecture -> String

axiom fa(a: Student-AE-Lecture) aggregate(a) = "none"

theorem Student-AE-Lecture-aggregate is

fa(a: Student-AE-Lecture, b: Student-AE-Lecture)

(aggregate(a) = "none" & aggregate(b) = "none")

op changeable: Student-AE-Lecture -> String

axiom fa(a: Student-AE-Lecture) changeable(a) = "none"

theorem Student-AE-Lecture-changeable is

fa(a: Student-AE-Lecture, b: Student-AE-Lecture)

(changeable(a) = "none" & changeable(b) = "none")

op isOrdered: Student-AE-Lecture -> Boolean

axiom fa(a: Student-AE-Lecture) isOrdered(a) = true

theorem Student-AE-Lecture-isOrdered is

fa(a: Student-AE-Lecture, b: Student-AE-Lecture)

(isOrdered(a) = true & isOrdered(b) = true)

end-spec

spec LECTURE-AE-COURSE is

sort Lecture-AE-Course

op name: Lecture-AE-Course -> String

axiom fa(a: Lecture-AE-Course) name(a) = "level"

theorem Lecture-AE-Course-name is

fa(a: Lecture-AE-Course, b: Lecture-AE-Course)

(name(a) = "level" & name(b) = "level")

op multiplicity: Lecture-AE-Course -> Nat, Nat

axiom fa(a: Lecture-AE-Course) multiplicity(a) = (1,1)

theorem Lecture-AE-Course-multiplicity is

fa(a: Lecture-AE-Course, b: Lecture-AE-Course)

(multiplicity(a) = (1,1) & multiplicity(b) = (1,1))

op isNavigable: Lecture-AE-Course -> Boolean

axiom fa(a: Lecture-AE-Course) isNavigable(a) = true

theorem Lecture-AE-Course-isNavigable is

fa(a: Lecture-AE-Course, b: Lecture-AE-Course)

(isNavigable(a) = true & isNavigable(b) = true)

op aggregate: Lecture-AE-Course -> String

axiom fa(a: Lecture-AE-Course) aggregate(a) = "none"

theorem Lecture-AE-Course-aggregate is

fa(a: Lecture-AE-Course, b: Lecture-AE-Course)

(aggregate(a) = "none" & aggregate(b) = "none")

op changeable: Lecture-AE-Course -> String

axiom fa(a: Lecture-AE-Course) changeable(a) = "none"

theorem Lecture-AE-Course-changeable is

fa(a: Lecture-AE-Course, b: Lecture-AE-Course)

(changeable(a) = "none" & changeable(b) = "none")

op isOrdered: Lecture-AE-Course -> Boolean

axiom fa(a: Lecture-AE-Course) isOrdered(a) = false

theorem Lecture-AE-Course-isOrdered is

fa(a: Lecture-AE-Course, b: Lecture-AE-Course)

(isOrdered(a) = false & isOrdered(b) = false)

end-spec

spec COURSE-AE-LECTURE is

sort Course-AE-Lecture

op name: Course-AE-Lecture -> String

axiom fa(a: Course-AE-Lecture) name(a) = ""

theorem Course-AE-Lecture-name is

fa(a: Course-AE-Lecture, b: Course-AE-Lecture)

(name(a) = "" & name(b) = "")

op multiplicity: Course-AE-Lecture -> Nat, Nat

axiom fa(a: Course-AE-Lecture) multiplicity(a) = (1,1)

theorem Course-AE-Lecture-multiplicity is

fa(a: Course-AE-Lecture, b: Course-AE-Lecture)

(multiplicity(a) = (1,1) & multiplicity(b) = (1,1))

op isNavigable: Course-AE-Lecture -> Boolean

axiom fa(a: Course-AE-Lecture) isNavigable(a) = true

theorem Course-AE-Lecture-isNavigable is

fa(a: Course-AE-Lecture, b: Course-AE-Lecture)

(isNavigable(a) = true & isNavigable(b) = true)

op aggregate: Course-AE-Lecture -> String

axiom fa(a: Course-AE-Lecture) aggregate(a) = "none"

theorem Course-AE-Lecture-aggregate is

fa(a: Course-AE-Lecture, b: Course-AE-Lecture)

(aggregate(a) = "none" & aggregate(b) = "none")

op changeable: Course-AE-Lecture -> String

axiom fa(a: Course-AE-Lecture)changeable(a) = "frozen"

theorem Course-AE-Lecture-changeable is

fa(a: Course-AE-Lecture, b: Course-AE-Lecture)

(changeable(a) = "frozen" & changeable(b) = "frozen")

op isOrdered: Course-AE-Lecture -> Boolean

axiom fa(a: Course-AE-Lecture) isOrdered(a) = false

theorem Course-AE-Lecture-isOrdered is

fa(a: Course-AE-Lecture, b: Course-AE-Lecture)

(isOrdered(a) = false & isOrdered(b) = false)

end-spec

spec LECTURE-STUDENT-AGGREGATION is

sort Lecture-Student-Aggregation, Lecture, Student

op name: Lecture-Student-Aggregation -> String

axiom fa(a: Lecture-Student-Aggregation) name(a) =

"Lecture-Student-Aggregation"

theorem Lecture-Student-Aggregation-name is

fa(a: Lecture-Student-Aggregation,

b: Lecture-Student-Aggregation)

(name(a) = "Lecture-Student-Aggregation" &

name(b) = "Lecture-Student-Aggregation")

op isLeaf: Lecture-Student-Aggregation -> Boolean

axiom fa(a: Lecture-Student-Aggregation) isLeaf(a) = true

theorem Lecture-Student-Aggregation-isLeaf is

fa(a: Lecture-Student-Aggregation, b: Lecture-Student-Aggregation)

(isLeaf(a) = true & isLeaf(b) = true)

op isRoot: Lecture-Student-Aggregation -> Boolean

axiom fa(a: Lecture-Student-Aggregation) isRoot(a) = true

theorem Lecture-Student-Aggregation-isRoot is

fa(a: Lecture-Student-Aggregation, b: Lecture-Student-Aggregation)

(isRoot(a) = true & isRoot(b) = true)

op isAbstract: Lecture-Student-Aggregation -> Boolean

axiom fa(a: Lecture-Student-Aggregation) isAbstract(a) = true

theorem Lecture-Student-Aggregation-isAbstract is

fa(a: Lecture-Student-Aggregation, b: Lecture-Student-Aggregation)

(isAbstract(a) = true & isAbstract(b) = true)

op make-association: Lecture, Student -> Lecture-Student-Aggregation

op first: Lecture-Student-Aggregation -> Lecture

op second: Lecture-Student-Aggregation -> Student

axiom first(make-association(d, e)) = d

axiom second(make-association(d, e)) = e

constructors {make-association} construct Lecture-Student-Aggregation

theorem p = make-association(first(p), second(p))

end-spec

diagram LECTURE-STUDENT-ASSOC-SOURCE is

nodes T1: TRIV, T2: TRIV, PAIR, LECTURE-STUDENT-AGGREGATION,

LECTURE-AE-STUDENT

arcs

T1 -> LECTURE-STUDENT-AGGREGATION:

{e -> Lecture-Student-Aggregation},

T1 -> P1: {e -> Right},

T2 -> P1: {e -> Left},

T2 -> LECTURE-AE-STUDENT: {e -> Lecture-AE-Student}

end-diagram

diagram LECTURE-STUDENT-ASSOC-TARGET is

nodes T1: TRIV, T2: TRIV, PAIR, LECTURE-STUDENT-AGGREGATION,

STUDENT-AE-LECTURE

arcs

T1 -> LECTURE-STUDENT-AGGREGATION:

{e -> Lecture-Student-Aggregation},

T1 -> P1: {e -> Right},

T2 -> P1: {e -> Left},

T2 -> STUDENT-AE-LECTURE: {e -> Student-AE-Lecture}

end-diagram

spec LECTURE-STUDENT-AGGREGATION-COLIMIT is

import colimit of diagram

nodes T1: TRIV, T2: TRIV, T3: TRIV, T4: TRIV,

T5: TRIV, T6: TRIV, T7: TRIV, T8: TRIV,

P1: PAIR, P2: PAIR, P3: PAIR, P4: PAIR,

LECTURE, STUDENT, LECTURE-AE-STUDENT,

STUDENT-AE-LECTURE,

LECTURE-STUDENT-AGGREGATION

arcs

T1 -> P1: {e -> Right},

T2 -> P1: {e -> Left},

T1 -> LECTURE: {e -> Lecture},

T2 -> LECTURE-AE-STUDENT: {e -> Lecture-AE-Student},

T3 -> P2: {e -> Right},

T4 -> P2: {e -> Left},

T3 -> LECTURE-AE-STUDENT: {e -> Lecture-AE-Student},

T4 -> LECTURE-STUDENT-AGGREGATION:

{e -> Lecture-Student-Aggregation},

T5 -> P3: {e -> Right},

T6 -> P3: {e -> Left},

T5 -> LECTURE-STUDENT-AGGREGATION:

{e -> Lecture-Student-Aggregation},

T6 -> STUDENT-AE-LECTURE: {e -> Student-AE-Lecture},

T7 -> P4: {e -> Right},

T8 -> P4: {e -> Left},

T7 -> STUDENT-AE-LECTURE: {e -> Student-AE-Lecture},

T8 -> STUDENT: {e -> Student}

end-diagram

axiom OCL1 is fa(a: Lecture-AE-Student, b:Student-AE-Lecture)

name(a) = name(b) => a = b

axiom OCL2 is fa(a: Lecture-AE-Student, b:Student-AE-Lecture)

((aggregate(a) = "aggregate") or (aggregate(a) = "composite") =>

(aggregate(b) = "none") or

((aggregate(b) = "aggregate") or (aggregate(b) = "composite") =>

(aggregate(a) = "none"))

axiom OCL3 is fa(a: Lecture-Student-Aggregation)

Lecture = first(a) & Student = second(a)

axiom OCL4 is fa(a: Lecture, b:Student)

name(a) = name(b) => a = b

end-spec

spec LECTURE-COURSE-ASSOCIATION is

sort Lecture-Course-Association, Lecture, Course

op name: Lecture-Course-Association -> String

axiom fa(a: Lecture-Course-Association) name(a) =

"Lecture-Course-Association"

theorem Lecture-Course-Association-name is

fa(a: Lecture-Course-Association, b: Lecture-Course-Association)

(name(a) = "Lecture-Course-Association" &

name(b) = "Lecture-Course-Association")

op isLeaf: Lecture-Course-Association -> Boolean

axiom fa(a: Lecture-Course-Association) isLeaf(a) = true

theorem Lecture-Course-Association-isLeaf is

fa(a: Lecture-Course-Association, b: Lecture-Course-Association)

(isLeaf(a) = true & isLeaf(b) = true)

op isRoot: Lecture-Course-Association -> Boolean

axiom fa(a: Lecture-Course-Association) isRoot(a) = true

theorem Lecture-Course-Association-isRoot is

fa(a: Lecture-Course-Association, b: Lecture-Course-Association)

(isRoot(a) = true & isRoot(b) = true)

op isAbstract: Lecture-Course-Association -> Boolean

axiom fa(a: Lecture-Course-Association) isAbstract(a) = true

theorem Lecture-Course-Association-isAbstract is

fa(a: Lecture-Course-Association, b: Lecture-Course-Association)

(isAbstract(a) = true & isAbstract(b) = true)

op make-association: Lecture, Course -> Lecture-Course-Association

op first: Lecture-Course-Association -> Lecture

op second: Lecture-Course-Association -> Course

axiom first(make-association(d, e)) = d

axiom second(make-association(d, e)) = e

constructors {make-association} construct Lecture-Course-Association

theorem p = make-association(first(p), second(p))

end-spec

diagram LECTURE-COURSE-ASSOC-SOURCE is

nodes T1: TRIV, T2: TRIV, PAIR, LECTURE-COURSE-ASSOCIATION,

LECTURE-AE-COURSE

arcs

T1 -> LECTURE-COURSE-ASSOCIATION:

{e -> Lecture-Course-Association},

T1 -> P1: {e -> Right},

T2 -> P1: {e -> Left},

T2 -> LECTURE-AE-COURSE: {e -> Lecture-AE-Course}

end-diagram

diagram LECTURE-COURSE-ASSOC-TARGET is

nodes T1: TRIV, T2: TRIV, PAIR, LECTURE-COURSE-ASSOCIATION,

COURSE-AE-LECTURE

arcs

T1 -> LECTURE-COURSE-ASSOCIATION: {e -> Lecture-Course-Association},

T1 -> P1: {e -> Right},

T2 -> P1: {e -> Left},

T2 -> COURSE-AE-LECTURE: {e -> Course-AE-Lecture}

end-diagram

spec LECTURE-COURSE-ASSOCIATION-COLIMIT is

import colimit of diagram

nodes T1: TRIV, T2: TRIV, T3: TRIV, T4: TRIV,

T5: TRIV, T6: TRIV, T7: TRIV, T8: TRIV,

P1: PAIR, P2: PAIR, P3: PAIR, P4: PAIR,

LECTURE, COURSE, LECTURE-AE-COURSE, COURSE-AE-LECTURE,

LECTURE-COURSE-ASSOCIATION

arcs

T1 -> P1: {e -> Right},

T2 -> P1: {e -> Left},

T1 -> LECTURE: {e -> Lecture},

T2 -> LECTURE-AE-COURSE: {e -> Lecture-AE-Course},

T3 -> P2: {e -> Right},

T4 -> P2: {e -> Left},

T3 -> LECTURE-AE-COURSE: {e -> Lecture-AE-Course},

T4 -> LECTURE-COURSE-ASSOCIATION: {e -> Lecture-Course-Association},

T5 -> P3: {e -> Right},

T6 -> P3: {e -> Left},

T5 -> LECTURE-COURSE-ASSOCIATION: {e -> Lecture-Course-Association},

T6 -> COURSE-AE-LECTURE: {e -> Course-AE-Lecture},

T7 -> P4: {e -> Right},

T8 -> P4: {e -> Left},

T7 -> COURSE-AE-LECTURE: {e -> Course-AE-Lecture},

T8 -> COURSE: {e -> Course}

end-diagram

axiom OCL1 is fa(a: Lecture-AE-Course, b:Course-AE-Lecture)

name(a) = name(b) => a = b

axiom OCL2 is fa(a: Lecture-AE-Course, b:Course-AE-Lecture)

((aggregate(a) = "aggregate") or (aggregate(a) = "composite") =>

(aggregate(b) = "none") or

((aggregate(b) = "aggregate") or (aggregate(b) = "composite") =>

(aggregate(a) = "none"))

axiom OCL3 is fa(a: Lecture-Course-Association)

Lecture = first(a) & Course = second(a)

axiom OCL4 is fa(a: Lecture, b:Course)

name(a) = name(b) => a = b

end-spec

spec PRESENTATION-LECTURE-GENERALIZATION is

sorts Presentation-Lecture-Generalization, Lecture

op name: Presentation-Lecture-Generalization -> String

axiom fa(a: Presentation-Lecture-Generalization)

name(a) = "Presentation-Lecture-Generalization"

theorem Presentation-Lecture-Generalization-name is

fa(a: Presentation-Lecture-Generalization,

b: Presentation-Lecture-Generalization)

(name(a) = "Presentation-Lecture-Generalization" &

name(b) = "Presentation-Lecture-Generalization")

op discriminator: Presentation-Lecture-Generalization -> String

axiom fa(a: Presentation-Lecture-Generalization) discriminator(a) = "")

theorem Presentation-Lecture-Generalization-discriminator is

fa(a: Presentation-Lecture-Generalization,

b: Presentation-Lecture-Generalization)

(discriminator(a) = "" & discriminator(b) = "")

op isa: Lecture -> Presentation-Lecture-Generalization

axiom fa(a: Lecture) isa(a) = Presentation-Lecture-Generalization)

theorem Presentation-Lecture-Generalization-isa is

fa(a: Lecture, b: Lecture)

(isa(a) = Presentation-Lecture-Generalization &

isa(b) = Presentation-Lecture-Generalization)

op no-isa: Presentation-Lecture-Generalization -> String

axiom fa(a: Presentation-Lecture-Generalization) no-isa(a) = "Presentation"

theorem Presentation-Lecture-Generalization-no-isa is

fa(a: Presentation-Lecture-Generalization,

b: Presentation-Lecture-Generalization)

(no-isa(a) = "Presentation" & no-isa(b) = "Presentation")

end-spec

spec PRESENTATION-LECTURE-GENERALIZATION-COLIMIT is

import colimit of diagram

nodes T1: TRIV, T2: TRIV, T3: TRIV, T4: TRIV,

P1: PAIR, P2: PAIR, PRESENTATION, LECTURE,

PRESENTATION-LECTURE-GENERALIZATION

arcs

T1 -> P1: {e -> Left},

T1 -> LECTURE: {e -> Lecture},

T2 -> P1: {e -> Right},

T2 -> PRESENTATION-LECTURE-GENERALIZATION: {e -> Lecture},

T3 -> P2: {e -> Left},

T3 -> PRESENTATION-LECTURE-GENERALIZATION:

{e -> Presentation-Lecture-Generalization},

T4 -> P2: {e -> Right},

T4 -> PRESENTATION: {e -> Presentation}

end-diagram

axiom OCL5 is fa(a: Presentation, b:Presentation-Lecture-Generalization)

isRoot(a) = no-isa(b) => ""

axiom OCL6 is fa(a: Presentation)

isLeaf(a) = false

axiom OCL7 is fa(a: Presentation, b:Presentation-Lecture-Generalization)

name(a) = no-isa(b)

end-spec

% Part 1 specs - each of the meta-classes in the Core Metamodel ----

spec PAIR is

sorts Pair, Left, Right

op make-pair: Left, Right -> Pair

op left: Pair -> Left

op right: Pair -> Right

axiom (equal (left (make-pair d e)) d)

axiom (equal (right(make-pair d e)) e)

constructors {make-pair} construct Pair

theorem (equal p (make-pair (left p) (right p)))

axiom unique is

(and (and (fa (a: Left) (ex (b: Right p: Pair)

(and (equal (Left p) a) (equal (Right p) b))))

(implies (fa (a: Left b1: Right b2: Right p1: Pair p2: Pair)

(and (and (and (equal (Left p1) a) (equal (Left p2) a))

(equal (Right p1) b1)) (equal (Right p2) b2)))

(and (equal p1 p2) (equal b1 b2))))

(and (fa (a: Right) (ex (a: Left p: Pair)

(and (equal (Left p) a) (equal (Right p) b))))

(implies (fa (a1: Left a2: Left p1: Pair p2: Pair b: Right)

(and (and (and (equal (Left p1) a1) (equal (Left p2) a2))

(equal (Right p1) b1)) (equal (Right p2) b2)))

(and (equal p1 p2) (equal a1 a2)))))

end-spec

spec MODELELEMENT is

sort ModelElement

op name : ModelElement -> String

axiom name is (fa (a: ModelElement b: ModelElement)

(equal (name a) (name b)))

end-spec

spec ATTRIBUTE is

sorts Attribute, Expr

op name : Attribute -> String

axiom name is (fa (a: Attribute b: Attribute)

(equal (name a) (name b)))

op initialValue : Attribute -> Expr

axiom initialValue is (fa (a: Attribute b: Attribute)

(equal (initialValue a) (initialValue b)))

end-spec

spec INSTANCE is

sort Instance

op name : Instance -> String

axiom name is (fa (a: Instance b: Instance)

(equal (name a) (name b)))

end-spec

spec OBJECT is

sort Object

op name : Object -> String

axiom name is (fa (a: Object b: Object)

(equal (name a) (name b)))

end-spec

spec GENERALIZATION is

sorts Generalization, Specialization

op name : Generalization -> String

axiom name is (fa (a: Generalization b: Generalization)

(equal (name a) (name b)))

op discriminator : Generalization -> String

axiom discriminator is (fa (a: Generalization b: Generalization)

(equal (discriminator a) (discriminator b)))

op isa : Specialization -> Generalization

axiom isa is (fa (a: Specialization b: Specialization)

(equal (isa a) (isa b)))

op no-isa : Generalization -> String

axiom no-isa is (fa (a: Generalization b: Generalization)

(equal (no-isa a) (no-isa b)))

end-spec

spec NAMESPACE is

sort Namespace

op name : Namespace -> String

axiom name is (fa (a: Namespace b: Namespace)

(equal (name a) (name b)))

end-spec

spec GENERALIZABLEELEMENT is

sort GeneralizableElement

op name : GeneralizableElement -> String

axiom name is (fa (a: GeneralizableElement b: GeneralizableElement)

(equal (name a) (name b)))

op isRoot : GeneralizableElement -> Boolean

axiom isRoot is (fa (a: GeneralizableElement b: GeneralizableElement)

(equal (isRoot a) (isRoot b)))

op isLeaf : GeneralizableElement -> Boolean

axiom isLeaf is (fa (a: GeneralizableElement b: GeneralizableElement)

(equal (isLeaf a) (isLeaf b)))

op isAbstract : GeneralizableElement -> Boolean

axiom isAbstract is (fa (a: GeneralizableElement b: GeneralizableElement)

(equal (isAbstract a) (isAbstract b)))

end-spec

spec CLASSIFIER is

sort Classifier

op name : Classifier -> String

axiom name is (fa (a: Classifier b: Classifier)

(equal (name a) (name b)))

op isRoot : Classifier -> Boolean

axiom isRoot is (fa (a: Classifier b: Classifier)

(equal (isRoot a) (isRoot b)))

op isLeaf : Classifier -> Boolean

axiom isLeaf is (fa (a: Classifier b: Classifier)

(equal (isLeaf a) (isLeaf b)))

op isAbstract : Classifier -> Boolean

axiom isAbstract is (fa (a: Classifier b: Classifier)

(equal (isAbstract a) (isAbstract b)))

end-spec

spec CLASS is

sort Class

op name : Class -> String

axiom name is (fa (a: Class b: Class)

(equal (name a) (name b)))

op isRoot : Class -> Boolean

axiom isRoot is (fa (a: Class b: Class)

(equal (isRoot a) (isRoot b)))

op isLeaf : Class -> Boolean

axiom isLeaf is (fa (a: Class b: Class)

(equal (isLeaf a) (isLeaf b)))

op isAbstract : Class -> Boolean

axiom isAbstract is (fa (a: Class b: Class)

(equal (isAbstract a) (isAbstract b)))

end-spec

spec ASSOCIATION is

sort Association, Source, Target

op name : Association -> String

axiom name is (fa (a: Association b: Association)

(equal (name a) (name b)))

op isRoot : Association -> Boolean

axiom isRoot is (fa (a: Association b: Association)

(equal (isRoot a) (isRoot b)))

op isLeaf : Association -> Boolean

axiom isLeaf is (fa (a: Association b: Association)

(equal (isLeaf a) (isLeaf b)))

op isAbstract : Association -> Boolean

axiom isAbstract is (fa (a: Association b: Association)

(equal (isAbstract a) (isAbstract b)))

op make-association: Source, Target -> Association

op first: Association -> Source

op second: Association -> Target

axiom (equal (first (make-association d e)) d)

axiom (equal (second(make-association d e)) e)

constructors {make-association} construct Association

theorem (equal p (make-association (first p) (second p)))

end-spec

spec ASSOCIATIONEND is

sorts AssociationEnd

op isNavigable: AssociationEnd -> Boolean

axiom isNavigable is (fa (a: AssociationEnd b: AssociationEnd)

(equal (isNavigable a) (isNavigable b)))

op isOrdered: AssociationEnd -> Boolean

axiom isOrdered is (fa (a: AssociationEnd b: AssociationEnd)

(equal (isOrdered a) (isOrdered b)))

op name: AssociationEnd -> String

axiom name is (fa (a: AssociationEnd b: AssociationEnd)

(equal (name a) (name b)))

op aggregate: AssociationEnd -> String

axiom aggregate is (fa (a: AssociationEnd b: AssociationEnd)

(equal (aggregate a) (aggregate b)))

op multiplicity: AssociationEnd -> Nat, Nat

axiom multiplicity is (fa (a: AssociationEnd b: AssociationEnd)

(equal (multiplicity a) (multiplicity b)))

op changeable: AssociationEnd -> String

axiom changeable is (fa (a: AssociationEnd b: AssociationEnd)

(equal (changeable a) (changeable b)))

end-spec

% Part 2 diagrams - diagrams that implement each link between pairs of meta-classes -

diagram ASSOCIATION-END-TYPE is

nodes T1:TRIV, T2:TRIV, PAIR, ASSOCIATIONEND, CLASSIFIER

arcs

T1 -> ASSOCIATIONEND: {e -> AssociationEnd},

T1 -> PAIR: {e -> Left},

T2 -> PAIR: {e -> Right},

T2 -> CLASSIFIER {e -> Classifier}

end-diagram

diagram SPEC-PARTICIPANT is

nodes T1:TRIV, T2:TRIV, PAIR, ASSOCIATIONEND, CLASSIFIER

arcs

T1 -> ASSOCIATIONEND: {e -> AssociationEnd},

T1 -> PAIR: {e -> Left},

T2 -> PAIR: {e -> Right},

T2 -> CLASSIFIER: {e -> Classifier}

end-diagram

diagram GEN-SUBTYPE is

nodes T1:TRIV, T2:TRIV, PAIR, GENERALIZABLEELEMENT, GENERALIZATION

arcs

T1 -> GENERALIZABLEELEMENT: {e -> GeneralizableElement},

T1 -> PAIR: {e -> Left},

T2 -> PAIR: {e -> Right},

T2 -> GENERALIZATION: {e -> Specialization}

end-diagram

diagram GEN-SUPERTYPE is

nodes T1:TRIV, T2:TRIV, PAIR, GENERALIZABLEELEMENT, GENERALIZATION

arcs

T1 -> GENERALIZABLEELEMENT: {e -> GeneralizableElement},

T1 -> PAIR: {e -> Left},

T2 -> PAIR: {e -> Right},

T2 -> GENERALIZATION: {e -> Generalization}

end-diagram

diagram OWNED-EL-NAMESPACE is

nodes T1:TRIV, T2:TRIV, PAIR, MODELELEMENT, NAMESPACE

arcs

T1 -> MODELELEMENT: {e -> ModelElement},

T1 -> PAIR: {e -> Left},

T2 -> PAIR: {e -> Right},

T2 -> NAMESPACE: {e -> Namespace}

end-diagram

diagram ASSOC-SOURCE is

nodes T1:TRIV, T2:TRIV, PAIR, ASSOCIATION, ASSOCIATIONEND

arcs

T1 -> ASSOCIATION: {e -> Source},

T1 -> PAIR: {e -> Left},

T2 -> PAIR: {e -> Right},

T2 -> ASSOCIATIONEND: {e -> AssociationEnd}

end-diagram

diagram ASSOC-TARGET is

nodes T1:TRIV, T2:TRIV, PAIR, ASSOCIATION, ASSOCIATIONEND

arcs

T1 -> ASSOCIATION: {e -> Target},

T1 -> PAIR: {e -> Left},

T2 -> PAIR: {e -> Right},

T2 -> ASSOCIATIONEND: {e -> AssociationEnd}

end-diagram

diagram INSTANCE-CLASSIFIER is

nodes T1:TRIV, T2:TRIV, PAIR, INSTANCE, CLASSIFIER

arcs

T1 -> INSTANCE: {e -> Instance},

T1 -> PAIR: {e -> Left},

T2 -> PAIR: {e -> Right},

T2 -> CLASSIFIER: {e -> Classifier}

end-diagram

diagram ATTRIBUTE-TYPE is

nodes T1:TRIV, T2:TRIV, PAIR, CLASS, ATTRIBUTE

arcs

T1 -> CLASS: {e -> Class},

T1 -> PAIR: {e -> Left},

T2 -> PAIR: {e -> Right},

T2 -> ATTRIBUTE: {e -> Attribute}

end-diagram

% Part 3 constraints - colimit specs necessary to describe the OCL constraints -

spec ASSOCIATION-CLASSIFIER-COLIMIT is

import colimit of diagram

nodes T1: TRIV, T2: TRIV, T3: TRIV, T4: TRIV,

T5: TRIV, T6: TRIV, T7: TRIV, T8: TRIV,

P1: PAIR, P2: PAIR, P3: PAIR, P4: PAIR,

C1: CLASSIFIER, C2: CLASSIFIER,

AE1: ASSOCIATIONEND, AE2: ASSOCIATIONEND, ASSOCIATION

arcs

T1 -> P1: {e -> Right},

T2 -> P1: {e -> Left},

T1 -> C1: {e -> Classifier},

T2 -> AE1: {e -> AssociationEnd},

T3 -> P2: {e -> Right},

T4 -> P2: {e -> Left},

T3 -> AE1: {e -> AssociationEnd},

T4 -> ASSOCIATION: {e -> Association},

T5 -> P3: {e -> Right},

T6 -> P3: {e -> Left},

T5 -> ASSOCIATION: {e -> Association},

T6 -> AE2: {e -> AssociationEnd},

T7 -> P4: {e -> Right},

T8 -> P4: {e -> Left},

T7 -> AE2: {e -> AssociationEnd},

T8 -> C2: {e -> Classifier}

end-diagram

% The AssociationEnds must have a unique name within the association

axiom OCL1 is (fa(a: AE1.AssociationEnd b: AE2.AssociationEnd)

(implies (equal (AE1.name a) (AE2.name b)) (equal AE1.a AE2.b)))

% At most one AssociationEnd may be an aggregate or a composite

axiom OCL2 is (fa(a: AE1.AssociationEnd b: AE2.AssociationEnd)

(or (implies (or (equal (AE1.aggregate AE1.a) "aggregate")

(equal (AE1.aggregate AE1.a) "composite"))

(equal (AE2.aggregate AE2.b) "none"))

(implies (or (equal (AE2.aggregate AE2.b) "aggregate")

(equal (AE2.aggregate AE2.b) "composite"))

(equal (AE1.aggregate AE1.a) "none"))))

% The connected Classifiers of the AssociationEnds should be included

% in the Namespace of the association

axiom OCL3 is (fa(a: Association)

(and (equal C1.Classifier (first a)) (equal C2.Classifier (second a))))

% No opposite AssociationEnds may have the same name within the Classifier

axiom OCL4 is (fa(a: C1.Classifier b: C2.Classifier)

(implies (equal (C1.name a) (C2.name b)) (equal C1.a C2.b)))

end-spec

spec GENERALIZABLEELEMENT-GENERALIZATION-COLIMIT is

import colimit of diagram

nodes T1: TRIV, T2: TRIV, T3: TRIV, T4: TRIV,

P1: PAIR, P2: PAIR, GESUB:GENERALIZABLEELEMENT,

GESUPER:GENERALIZABLEELEMENT, GENERALIZATION

arcs

T1 -> P1: {e -> Right},

T1 -> GESUB: {e -> GeneralizableElement},

T2 -> P1: {e -> Left},

T2 -> GENERALIZATION: {e -> Specialization},

T3 -> P2: {e -> Right},

T3 -> GENERALIZATION: {e -> Generalization},

T4 -> P2: {e -> Left},

T4 -> GESUPER: {e -> GeneralizableElement}

end-diagram

% A root cannot have any Generalizations

axiom OCL5 is (fa(a: GESUPER.GeneralizableElement b: Generalization)

(implies (GESUPER.isRoot a) (equal (no-isa b.Generalization) "")))

% No GeneralizableElement can have a supertype Generalization to an

% element which is a leaf

axiom OCL6 is (fa(a: GeneralizableElement)

(equal (GESUPER.isLeaf GESUPER.a) false))

% The supertype must be included in the Namespace of the Generalization

axiom OCL7 is (fa(a: GESUPER.GeneralizableElement b: Generalization)

(equal (GESUPER.name GESUPER.a) b.Generalization))

end-spec

Example of Browsing Rose/UML Objects

Portion of Specware’s Parse and Type/Theorem Checking

Sample Debug Screen of Lecture UML Diagram

Transformation Software GUI

Formal Verification of UML Diagrams

Future Work

Jeffrey Smith: Sanders and Northeastern University

Mieczyslaw Kokar: Northeastern University, College of Engineering

Ken Baclawski: Northeastern University, College of Computer Science

Specware Graphical View of the Object-Instance-Generalization Specification

- Expand on the set of meta-tools - future expansions include:
- Translation of OCL constraints into a form consistent with math foundation
- A metamodel analyzer that identifies metamodel elements, meta-attributes, meta-generalizations and meta-associations and helps with the identification of morphisms between these meta-elements and specific UML Formal Domain output
- More of UML than existing core metamodel
- Translation from a wider set of CASE tools
- Extension of the UML Formal Domain to the level of Specware programming language primitives, supporting the potential of direct UML translation to any source code provided by Specware
- Use of a wider set of theorem provers than currently built into Specware
- Expansion of a CASE tool’s forward and reverse engineering functionality by including the UML Formal Domain as an intermediate representation to support richer and more complete code generation

- Include reflective OCL constraints by either basing formalization on naïve set theory or building reflectivity into Specware
- Contribute to future revisions of UML by streamlining redundant functionality and helping to improve the form and content of new revisions
- Creation of semantics for commonly used rule based systems and translation of the UML form of these rules (and associated actions) to verifiably compose large business and military AI Systems
- Develop the relationship between other theory based models, e.g. the one developed by Hartrum and Deloach,and the UML Formal Semantics constructed in this research

Summary

Formal Methods Systems

CASE Tools

Formalize UML - UML contributions

Viable UML to Formal Methods translation

Automation of human intensive processes

UML Sample Execution

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