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Chapter 1 Introduction Contents 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Layering 1.3 TCP/IP Layering 1.4 Internet Address 1.5 The Domain Name System 1.6 Encapsulation 1.7 De-multiplexing 1.8 Client-Server Model 1.9 Port Numbers 1.10 Standardization Process 1.11 RFCs 1.12 Standard, Simple Service

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chapter 1

Chapter 1

Introduction

contents
Contents

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Layering

1.3 TCP/IP Layering

1.4 Internet Address

1.5 The Domain Name System

1.6 Encapsulation

1.7 De-multiplexing

1.8 Client-Server Model

1.9 Port Numbers

1.10 Standardization Process

1.11 RFCs

1.12 Standard, Simple Service

1.13 The Internet

1.14 Implementations

1.15 API

1.16 Test Network

1.17 Summary

1 1 introduction
1.1 Introduction
  • TCP/IP protocol suite allows computers to communicate with each other
    • All sizes
    • Different vendors
    • Different OS
  • Open system
    • Protocol suites and implementations are publicly available at little or no charge
    • Forms the basis for Internet
1 2 layring 1
1.2 Layring (1)
  • Application layer
    • Handles the details of the particular application
  • Transport layer
    • Provides a flow of data between two hosts
  • Network layer
    • Handles the movement of packets around the network
  • Link layer
    • Network interface
1 2 layring 2
1.2 Layring (2)

Handles

application

details

User

Process

FTP

Protocol

FTP

Client

FTP

server

Application

TCP

Protocol

Transport

TCP

TCP

Handles

communication

details

kernel

IP

Protocol

IP

Network

IP

Ethernet

Protocol

Ethernet

Driver

Link

Ethernet Driver

Ethernet

1 2 layring 3

FTP

서버

FTP

Client

FTP protocol

TCP protocol

TCP

TCP

Router

IP protocol

IP

protocol

IP

IP

IP

Ethenet

Driver

Ethernet

protocol

Token-Ring

protocol

Token-Ring

Driver

Token-Ring

Driver

Ethernet

Driver

Ethernet

Token-Ring

1.2 Layring (3)
1 3 tcp ip layering

User

Process

User

Process

User

Process

User

Process

Application

Transport

TCP

UDP

Network

ICMP

IP

IGMP

Hardware

ARP

RARP

Link

Interface

Media

1.3 TCP/IP Layering
1 4 internet addresses 1
1.4 Internet Addresses (1)
  • 32-bit dotted-decimal
  • A unique IP address per interface
    • A host/router may have multiple IP addresses
  • Five classes
    • A: 0.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255
    • B: 128.0.0.0 to 191.255.255.255
    • C: 192.0.0.0 to 223.255.255.255
    • D: 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255
    • E: 240.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255
1 4 internet addresses 2

7 bit

24 bit

A

class

1

netid

hostid

14 bit

16 bit

B

netid

hostid

class

1

0

21 bit

8 bit

C

class

netid

hostid

0

1 1

28 bit

class D

Multicast group ID

1 1 1 0

27 bit

E

class

(

)

1 1 1

1 0

reserved

1.4 Internet Addresses (2)
1 5 domain name system
1.5 Domain Name System
  • Name of a host: human readable addresses
  • Distributed database that provides the mapping between IP addresses and hostnames
  • Functions are provided to
    • Lookup IP addresses to a given host name
    • Reverse lookup host names for a given IP address
1 6 encapsulation
1.6 Encapsulation

User data

application

Appl

header

User data

TCP

TCP header

Application data

TCP segment

IP

IP header

TCP header

Application data

IP datagram

Ethernet

driver

Ethernet

trailer

Ethernet header

Application data

IP header

TCP header

14

20

20

4

Ethernet

Ethernet Frame

46 to 1500 bytes

1 7 demultiplexing
1.7 Demultiplexing

Application

Application

Application

Application

Demultiplexing based on

destination port number

in TCP or UDP header

TCP

UDP

ICMP

IGMP

Demultiplexing based on

Protocol value in IP header

IP

ARP

RARP

Demultiplexing based on

frame type in Ethernet header

Ethenet

Driver

Incoming frame

1 8 client server model
1.8 Client-Server Model
  • Iterative server
    • Wait for a client request to arrive
    • Process the client request
    • Send the response back to the client that sent the request
    • Go back to the first step
  • Concurrent server
    • Wait for a client request to arrive
    • Start a new sever to handle this client’s request
      • When complete, this new server terminates
    • Go back to the first step
1 9 port numbers
1.9 Port Numbers
  • 16-bit numbers for TCP or UDP to identify applications
  • Well-known port number
    • FTP: TCP 21
    • Telnet: TCP 23
    • SMTP: TCP 25
    • DNS: UDP 53
    • TFTP: UDP 69
1 10 standardization process
1.10 Standardization Process
  • ISOC (Internet Society)
  • IAB (Internet Architecture Board)
  • IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)
    • Develops the specifications that become internet standards
    • Divided into several Working Groups
  • IRTF (Internet Research Task Force)
1 11 rfcs
1.11 RFCs
  • All official standards are published as a Request for Comment.
  • All the RFCs are available at no charge
    • http://www.ietf.org
  • Important RFCs
    • Assigned numbers (RFC 1700)
    • Internet Official Protocol Standards (RFC 1600)
    • Host Requirements (RFC 1122/1123)
    • Router Requirements (RFC 1812)
1 12 standard simple service

1.12 Standard, Simple Service

Echo 7 7 862 서버는 클라이언트가 보낸 모든 데이터를 되

돌려 보낸다.

Discard 9 9 863 서버는 클라이언트가 보낸 모든 데이터를 되

돌려 무시한다

Daytime 13 13 867 서버는 사람이 읽을 수 있는 형식으로 시간

과 날짜를 되돌려 보낸다.

Chargen 19 19 864 TCP 서버는 연결이 클라이언트에 의해 끊어

질 때까지 연속된 문자열을 송신한다. UDP 서

버는 클라이언트가 데이터 그램을

보낼 때마다 임의의 개수의 문자를 포함한

데이터 그램을 보낸다.

Time 37 37 868 서버는 2진 숫자로 시간을 되돌려 보낸다. 이

숫자는 UTC(협정 표준시)로 1900년 1월 1일 0

시부터 초 단위로 계산된 시간을 나타낸다.

1 13 the internet
1.13 The Internet
  • internet
    • Multiple networks connected together using a common protocol suite
  • “Internet”
    • Collection of hosts around the world that can communicate with each other using TCP/IP
1 14 implementation

4.2

BSD

(1983)

최초에 일반 이용이

가능한 Release

4.3

BSD

(1986)

TCP

처리

능력을

개선

4.3

BSD Tahoe

(1988)

늦은

시작

혼잡회피

고속

재전송

BSD

Networking

Software

release

1.0(1989):

Net/1

4.3

BSD

Reno(1990)

고속

회복

헤더

예측,

TCP

SLIP

헤더

압축

BSD

Software

Networking

테이블

변경

Routing

2.0(1991):

Net/2

Release

4.4

BSD

(1993)

Multicasting

long fat pipe”

4.4

BSD-

Lite

(1994)

Net/3

라고도

1.14 Implementation
1 15 api
1.15 API
  • Berkely sockets vs. TLI (Transport Layer Interface)
1 16 test network

Internet

AIX 3.2.2

Solaris 2.2

SunOS 4.1.1

.104.1

aix

Cisco

solaris

gemini

gateway

Router

.1.4

.1.92

.1.11

.1.32

.1.183

Ethernet

Telebit

netb

NetBlazer

modem

)

dial-up

SLIP

(

modem

BSD/386 1.0

BSD/386 1.0

SunOS 4.1.3

SVR4

.1.29

SLIP

slip

Bsdi

sun

svr4

.13.65

.13.34

.13.33

svr4.tuc.noao.edu

Ethernet

1.16 Test Network
1 17 summary
1.17 Summary
  • Four layers in the TCP/IP protocol suite
    • Application layer
    • Transport layer: end-to-end service
    • Network layer: hop-by-hop service
    • Link layer
  • Internet is a collection of networks using TCP/IP
    • A router connects the networks at IP layer
  • Internet each interface is identified by a unique IP address
    • DNS provides a dynamic mapping between IP addresses and host names
    • Port numbers are used to identifying applications