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Chapter 1. Introduction: The Enduring Context of IHRM. Chapter Objectives. We will establish the scope of the textbook: Define key terms in IHRM Review expatriate management evolution Outline the differences between domestic HRM and IHRM Identify variables that moderate these differences

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Chapter 1

Chapter 1

Introduction:The Enduring Context of IHRM

IBUS 618 Dr. Yang


Chapter objectives
Chapter Objectives

  • We will establish the scope of the textbook:

    • Define key terms in IHRM

    • Review expatriate management evolution

    • Outline the differences between domestic HRM and IHRM

    • Identify variables that moderate these differences

    • Discover the increasing complexity and potential challenges of current IHRM, and

    • Discuss trends and emerging challenges in the global work environment in which IHRM functions and activities are conducted

IBUS 618 Dr. Yang


Three approaches to ihrm
Three Approaches to IHRM

  • Cross-cultural management

    • Examine human behavior within organizations from an international perspective

  • Comparative HRM and Industrial Relations

    • Seeks to describe, compare and analyze HRM systems and IR in different countries

  • HRM in multinational firms

    • Explore how HRM is practiced in multinationals

IBUS 618 Dr. Yang



The general field of hr
The General Field of HR

  • Major Functions and Activities

    • Human resource planning

    • Staffing

      • Recruitment

      • Selection

      • Placement

    • Performance management

    • Training and development

    • Compensation (remuneration) and benefits

    • Industrial relations

IBUS 618 Dr. Yang


Whirlpool s globalization
Whirlpool’s Globalization

  • Where to go among alternative markets?

    • $23/hr in the U.S. including the benefits

    • $3/hr in Mexico

    • $1/hr in China

    • $32/hr in Germany

  • Mode of entry?

    • Acquisition of Phillips N.V. for more than $1 billion in 1991

  • Whirlpool’s total employees today:

    • 23,000 in the U.S.

    • 45,000 overseas

IBUS 618 Dr. Yang


Potential factors to consider
Potential Factors to Consider

  • Types of industry and technology

  • Mode of entry

    • Time of entry

    • Cost of entry

  • Human resources

    • Types of labor

    • Cost of labor

  • Proximity to the market and consumers

    • Regional

    • Global

  • Standardization vs. Adaptation

IBUS 618 Dr. Yang


Whirlpools global network
Whirlpools Global Network

  • The high-end $1,200 model from Germany

    • The smaller front loaders from Mexico

      • Mexican engineers, foremen and supervisors had 18 months training in Germany

    • Top loading machines made in Ohio for Americans

  • Microwave ovens engineered in Sweden and made in China

  • Refrigerators assembled in Brazil and exported to Europe

IBUS 618 Dr. Yang


What does ihrm add into the traditional framework of hrm
What does IHRM add into the Traditional Framework of HRM?

  • Types of employees

    • Within and cross-cultural workforce diversity

    • Coordination

    • Communication

  • Human resource activities

    • Procurement

    • Allocation

    • Utilization of human resources

  • Nation/country categories where firms expand and operate

    • Host country

    • Parent country

    • Third country

IBUS 618 Dr. Yang


Chapter 1

Figure1-2

A Model of IHRM

IBUS 618 Dr. Yang


What is an expatriate
What is an expatriate?

  • An employee who is working and temporarily residing in a foreign country

    • Some firms prefer to use the term “international assignees”

    • Expatriates are PCNs from the parent country operations, TCNs transferred to either HQ or another subsidiary, and HCNs transferred into the parent country

  • Global flow of human resources

IBUS 618 Dr. Yang



Differences between domestic hrm and ihrm
Differences between Domestic HRM and IHRM

  • More HR activities

  • The need for a broader perspective

  • More involvement in employees’ personal lives

  • Changes in emphasis as the workforce mix of expatriates and locals varies

  • Risk exposure

  • Broader external influences

IBUS 618 Dr. Yang



World top ten non financial transnational corps ranked by transnational index

Table IHRM1-1

World top ten non-financial transnational corps., ranked by transnational index

IBUS 618 Dr. Yang


World top ten non financial transnational corps ranked only by foreign assets
World top ten non-financial transnational corps., ranked only by foreign assets

Table1-2

IBUS 618 Dr. Yang


Strategic hrm in multinational enterprises

Figure only by foreign assets1-5

Strategic HRM in multinational enterprises

IBUS 618 Dr. Yang


Laurent s steps to truly international hrm
Laurent’s steps to truly international HRM only by foreign assets

  • Recognize that one’s own HRM reflects home cultureassumptions and values.

  • Recognize that one’s own peculiar ways are neither universally better nor worse than others - just different and likely to exhibit strengths and weaknesses, particularly abroad.

  • Recognize that organization’s foreign subsidiaries may prefer other ways to manage people – ways that are neither intrinsically better nor worse, but possibly more effective locally.

  • Headquarters willingness to acknowledge cultural differences and steps to make them discussable and therefore usable.

  • Build shared genuine belief that cross-cultural learning will result in more creative and effective ways of managing people.

IBUS 618 Dr. Yang

18

IHRM Chapter 1


Chapter summary cont
Chapter Summary only by foreign assets(cont.)

  • We have established the scope of the textbook:

    • Defined IHRM and the term “expatriate”.

    • Discussed major differences between domestic HRM and IHRM – looking at six factors:

      • More HR activities

      • Need for a broader perspective

      • More involvement in employees’ personal lives

      • Changes in emphasis as the workforce mix of expatriates and locals varies,

      • Risk exposure and

      • More external influences

IBUS 618 Dr. Yang


Chapter summary
Chapter Summary only by foreign assets

  • Identified four other variables moderating that differences between domestic and international HRM

    • Host-country cultural environment

    • Type of the industry

    • Reliance of the MNC on its home-country market

    • Attitudes of the senior management

  • This treatment has enabled us to provide an overview of the field of IHRM and to establish how the general environment affects IHRM.

  • The next chapter examines the organizational context where we explore how IHRM activities are determined by, and influence various internal changes as the firm internationalizes.

IBUS 618 Dr. Yang


Discussion questions
Discussion Questions only by foreign assets

  • What are the main similarities and differences between domestic and international HRM?

  • Define these terms: IHRM, PCN, HCN, and TCN.

  • Discuss two HR activities in which a MNE must engage that would not be required in a domestic environment.

  • Why is a greater degree of involvement in employees’ personal lives inevitable in many IHRM activities?

  • Discuss at least two of the variables that moderate differences between domestic and international HR practices.

IBUS 618 Dr. Yang