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Kashmir: The Political conflict between Pakistan and India over the Kashmiri territory. Henry Siler, Rhiannon Richards, Rachel Wagner, and Michelle Lynum; 2 nd period; AP Human Geography; 2-16-10. Pakistan.
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Kashmir: The Political conflict between Pakistan and India over the Kashmiri territory. Henry Siler, Rhiannon Richards, Rachel Wagner, and Michelle Lynum; 2nd period; AP Human Geography; 2-16-10
Pakistan • Pakistan underwent successive invasions in subsequent centuries from Persia, Greece, Scythia, Arabia, Afghanistan, and Turkey. • Pakistan was invaded and dominated by the Mughal Empire in the 16th and 17th centuries. • Pakistan was invaded and dominated by Britain in the 18th century
Pakistan ctd. • Pakistan is largely hierarchical with high regard for traditional Islamic values. • Some of Pakistan’s larger cities (Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Hyderabad, Faisalabad, Multan, and Peshawar) want to move in a more centrist direction. • Although, Northwestern regions bordering Afghanistan remain highly conservative and dominated by centuries old tribal customs of the regions.
India • During the reign of the Gupta Empires in the 4th and 6th centuries Indian science, art, and culture blossomed. • India was hit by Arab invasions in the 8th century, and Turkish invasions in the 12th century. • European traders came into India in the 15th century led to British invasion and political control in the 19th century. • India gained it’s independence in 1947 through nonviolent resistance to British colonialism led by Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru.
India ctd. • In India, there is a high degree of syncretism, or the attempted reconciliation of different or opposing principles; practice; or parties as in philosophy or religion, and cultural pluralism, or a condition in which minority groups participate fully in the dominant society yet maintain their cultural differences.
Kashmir • Until the mid 19th century, “Kashmir” only denoted the valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal mountain range. • Now the term “Kashmir” geographically denotes a larger area that encompasses the Kashmir valley, Jammu, and Ladakh, which are all India administered, the Northern areas and the Azad, which are both Pakistani administered, and the regions of Aksai Chin and Trans-Karakoram Tract, which are both Chinese administered. • So, Jammu= Indian Kashmir; Azad= Pakistani Kashmir
Kashmir ctd. • Beginning as early as the 4th century, Kashmir underwent many changes in religious control. It changed hands between the Buddhists, Hindus, and Muslims. • In the early 19th century, Kashmir passed form the control of the Durrani Empire of Afghanistan and 4 centuries of Muslim rulers to the Sikh army who conquered them.
Kashmir ctd. • After the Indian rebellion of 1857 the Princely State of Kashmir came under the suzerainty of the British . *Suzerainty is the position or authority of a suzerain. A suzerain is a sovereign or a state exercising political control over a dependent state.
The Power Struggle:Before the Independence from the British in 1947 from 1820 • Kashmir was governed by the Maharaja of Kashmir. • The Maharaja was Hindu, even though, excluding the Jammu region, the majority of the population was Muslim. • Pakistan expected Kashmir to be annexed to it.
The Power Struggle:1947 • The British rule had ended with the birth of two new nations, which were the Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan while British suzerainty over the 562 princely states ended as well. • In October 1947, the Maharaja signed the Instrument of Accession when the leader was unable to withstand an invasion from a western Muslim revolution and Pakistani tribal's to liberate it from Dogra rule. By October 20, 1947the Pakistani Army entered the conflict in support of the tribal forces in a multi-pronged effort designed to capture Uri, Jhangar, Rajuara, and Naushera in the opening days of the campaign.
The Power Struggle:1947 • Tribal Pakistani forces experienced significant successes in the opening days of the conflict as they were able to take Dommel on the first day and overpower a Kashmiri government battalion at Muzaffarabad by October 23rd. • Tribal Pakistani forces met fierce resistance at Uri, where Kashmiri government forces, despite the desertion of many of its Muslim troops, were able to delay the Pakistani forces for two days until it was destroyed. • The Maharaja, facing overwhelming odds and near certain defeat, asked India for military support. India agreed to help provided that Kashmir acceded to India and that the Prime Minister of Kashmir agreed to the accession.
The Power Struggle:1947 • When the Lashkar were preparing to enter the State Capital, Lord Mountbatten, the first Governor General of India and the Chairman of the provisional Defense Committee, reacted with exceeding speed on behalf of India, and air-lifted Indian troops for operations to halt the tribal incursion. • On the Indian Army's intervention in the State of Jammu and Kashmir, the Quaid-e-Azam reacted swiftly and ordered General Gracy, acting Commander-in-Chief of Pakistan Army, on October 27 and 28, 1947 to dispatch troops to the scene. • The British General however, failed to carry out the orders of the Governor General. It might be said that, in the circumstances, he defied the Quaid. Some people thought it was a case of treason. At that time all the four provincial Governors, the Agent to the Governor General in Baluchistan and the three Services Chiefs of Pakistan were British.
The Power Struggle:1947 • Field Marshal Auchinleck reported the matter to the Chief of Army Staff in London who immediately passed the orders for "stand down". The directive from London emboldened Auchinleck who then flew to Lahore and threatened the Quaid that an "act of invasion" over Kashmir would involve automatic and immediate withdrawal of all British Officers serving in the Pakistan Army. • The decision tended to deprive Pakistan Army of its Command structure, down to the lowest echelons of its fighting organization. Most of the officers of Pakistan Army at that time were British and their withdrawal would have adversely affected the Army's fighting capabilities. The Quaid had no option but to cancel the mobile orders to the Army. India had already gained ground in the Himalayan State of Kashmir. Mountbatten, a friend of the Nehru's, it would be seen, seldom lost an opportunity to help India to the detriment of Pakistan.
The Power Struggle:1947 • India's 161st Brigade was deployed and thwarted the advance of the tribal forces. In early November 1947, the 161st using armored cars, counterattacked, surprising the Pakistani forces and successfully broke through their defenses. • Despite early successes, the Indian army suffered a setback in December 1947 because of logistical problems. Furthermore, many of the Indian soldiers were ill prepared for fighting in the mountainous region of Kashmir and Jammu, few were experienced at high altitude combat nor were they prepared for the cold. These setbacks were significant as the Pakistani-backed forces were able to capitalize on these problems and to push back Indian forces from the border area. • In all, 1,500 soldiers died on each side during the war and Pakistan was able to acquire roughly two-fifths of Kashmir which it established as Azad Kashmir, meaning free Kashmir.
The Power Struggle:1965 • The second Indo-Pakistani war was also fought over Kashmir and started without a formal declaration of war. The war began in August 5, 1965 and was ended Sept 22, 1965. • India was defeated by China in 1962, so Pakistan believed the Indian military wouldn’t be able to defend against a quick military campaign in Kashmir. • There was popular support within Kashmir for Pakistani rule. It was rumored that the Kashmiri were dissatisfied with Indian rule.
The Power Struggle:1965 • On August 5, 1965, between 26,000 and 33,000 Pakistani soldiers crossed the Line of Control (LOC) dressed like Kashmiri locals. • India was tipped off by the local populace and crossed the cease fire line on August 15, 1965. • The first battles between India and Pakistan were contained within Kashmir . • It was not until early September when Pakistani forces attacked Ackhnur that the Indians escalated the conflict by attacking targets within Pakistan itself, forcing the Pakistani forces to disengage from Ackhnur to counter Indian attacks.
The Power Struggle:1965 • The largest engagement of the war occurred in the Sialkot region where some 400 to 600 tanks squared off. Unfortunately the battle was indecisive. • By September 22, 1965 both sides had agreed to a UN mandated cease-fire ending the war that had by that point reached a stalemate.
Instrument of Accession • "Whereas the Indian Independence Act, 1947, provides that as from the fifteenth day of August, 1947, there shall be set up an Independent Dominion known as India, and that the Government of India Act 1935 shall, with such omission, additions, adaptations and modifications as the governor-general may by order specify, be applicable to the Dominion of India.And whereas the Government of India Act 1935, as so adapted by the governor-general, provides that an Indian State may accede to the Dominion of India by an Instrument of Accession executed by the Ruler.Now, therefore, I Shriman Inder Mahander Rajrajeswar Maharajadhiraj Shri Hari Singhji, Jammu and Kashmir Naresh Tatha Tibbetadi Deshadhipathi, Ruler of Jammu and Kashmir (princely state), in the exercise of my sovereignty in and over my said State do hereby execute this my Instrument of Accession and I hereby declare that I accede to the Dominion of India with the intent that the governor-general of India, the Dominion Legislature, the Federal Court and any other Dominion authority established for the purposes of the Dominion shall, by virtue of this my Instrument of Accession but subject always to the terms thereof, and for the purposes only of the Dominion, exercise in relation to the State of Jammu and Kashmir (hereinafter referred to as "this State") such functions as may be vested in them by or under the Government of India Act, 1935, as in force in the Dominion of India, on the 15th day of August, 1947, (which Act as so in force is hereafter referred to as "the Act") ." It is further specified that. "I accept the matters specified in the schedule hereto as the matters with respect to which the Dominion Legislature may make law for this State."