A Presentation on Pakistan-U.S. Relations A brief history of U.S. – Pakistan Relations Pakistan’s Government Structure U.S. Aid to Pakistan Pakistan’s Military & Nuclear Capabilities By: Thomas Smith, Daniel Freeman, William Stier, & Patrick Wright
History of Pakistan – U.S. Relations The Relationship between the U.S. and Pakistan has it’s roots in the Cold War and South Asia regional politics of the 1950’s U.S. Concerns over Soviet expansionism and Pakistan’s want for security assistance against a threat from India drove the relationship. The two countries negotiated a mutual defense assistance agreement in 1954.
History of Pakistan – U.S. Relations Islamabad received nearly $2 billion in U.S. assistance from 1953 to 1961, including $508 million in military aid. During and immediately after the Indo-Pakistani wars of 1965 and 1971, the United States suspended military assistance. This resulted in a cooling of the Pakistan-U.S. relationship and a perception among some in Pakistan that the United States was not a reliable ally.
History of Pakistan – U.S. Relations Limited U.S. aid was resumed in 1975, but was suspended again in 1979 by the Carter Administration in response to Pakistan’s covert construction of a uranium enrichment facility. Following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in late 1979, Pakistan was again viewed as a frontline ally in the effort to block Soviet expansionism. In 1981, the Reagan Administration negotiated a five-year, $3.2 billion aid package with Islamabad.
History of Pakistan – U.S. Relations Despite the renewal of U.S. aid and close security ties, many in Congress remained troubled by Pakistan’s nuclear weapons program. With the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan beginning in 1988, Pakistan’s nuclear activities again came under intensive U.S. scrutiny and, in 1990, President Bush again suspended aid to Pakistan.
History of Pakistan – U.S. Relations In 1992, Congress partially relaxed the scope of the aid cutoff to allow for food assistance and continuing support for nongovernmental organizations. Among the serious results of the aid cutoff was the non-delivery of F-16 fighter aircraft ordered by Pakistan in 1989. In December 1998, the United States agreed to pay Pakistan $324.6 million from the U.S. Treasury’s Judgment Fund, as well as to provide Pakistan with $140 million in goods as compensation. October 2001, large amounts of U.S. aid sent to Pakistan.
U.S. Policy Issues in Pakistan Counterterrorism Nuclear Weapons Missile Proliferation South Asian Regional Stability Democratization and Human Rights Economic Reform and Market Opening Counter Narcotics Trafficking
Key Developments Effecting Relations Nuclear Proliferation sanctions. Democracy related sanctions. The Pakistan-India conflict and nuclear standoff. September 2001 Terrorist attacks against the United States.
Post 9/11 Pakistan-U.S. Relations Pakistan President Musharraf offered President Bush Pakistan’s “unstinted cooperation in the fight against terrorism” Pakistan became a vital ally in the U.S.- led anti-terrorism coalition. sanctions relating to Pakistan’s 1998 nuclear tests and 1999 military coup quickly were waived.
Post 9/11 Pakistan-U.S. Relations June 2004, President Bush declared Pakistan a major non-NATO ally of the United States. The United States has sold Pakistan billions of dollars of military equipment since Pakistan declared itself an ally in the war on terror. Total U.S. economic and military assistance to Pakistan from 1947-2004 was nearly $15 billion.
Overview of Pakistan’s Government Structure Federal Government President Prime Minister Majilis-i-Shoora (National Assembly & Senate) Cabinet of Ministers http://www.infopak.gov.pk/structure_government.aspx
Overview of Pakistan’s Government Structure Provincial Government Governor Chief Minister (Council of Ministers) Provincial Assembly http://www.infopak.gov.pk/structure_government.aspx
Why does the U.S. give Pakistan Aid? • The U.S. and Pakistan have had financial connections since World War II. • In recent years U.S. aid is intended as reimbursement for Pakistani assistance in the war on terror. • Pakistan is an unstable government whose collapse would bring political and economic crisis to the region.
History of U.S. Aid to Pakistan • 1950’s Aid helped a newly independent Pakistan over come economically the consequences of its partition from India. • 1960’s J.F.K signed the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 creating the USAID(Untied States Agency for International development. From this point forward USAID delivered the majority of U.S. government development assistance to Pakistan. • 1970’s USAID invested in fertilizer production and irrigation systems on farms. USAID and other international aid built two of the world’s biggest dams.
……..continued • 1980’s Almost all projects done in Pakistan where national in scope. USAID also invested in Pakistan’s housing market. • 1991-2001 The U.S. imposed nuclear non-proliferation sanctions. USAID worked with humanitarian assistance regulation(P.L. 106-429 Sec. 541 a), a non-governmental organization. • Post 9/11 USAID in conjunction with the U.S. Department of state focus all aid to 5 sectors: Energy, economic growth, stabilization, education and healthcare.
Rising Tensions/Post Bin Laden • Since the bin Laden raid tensions have increased. The U.S. never notified Pakistan about the raid, in fear of the information being leaked. • In 2011, According to U.S. and Pakistani officials, The Obama administration has delayed payment of about 800 million due to the countries lagging security cooperation.
Pakistan’s Military Size of Pakistan’s Military/Capabilities Military History of Pakistan Current Deployments
Nuclear Weapons Why Pakistan Wanted Nuclear Weapons History of Pakistan’s Nuclear Program Amount of Nuclear Weapons