Warm Up. Four MAIN causes of WWI: Triple Alliance: Triple Entente: Who is assassinated fueling WWI? Explain the Schlieffen Plan: Purpose of propaganda: Treaty of Brest Litovsk:. Warm Up Chapter 28. In the 1920’s women’s lives A. hardly changed at all
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Warm Up • Four MAIN causes of WWI: • Triple Alliance: • Triple Entente: • Who is assassinated fueling WWI? • Explain the Schlieffen Plan: • Purpose of propaganda: • Treaty of Brest Litovsk:
Warm Up Chapter 28 • In the 1920’s women’s lives • A. hardly changed at all • B. changed more than any previous decade • C. changed but only for the better • D. changed but only in a negative way • The German crisis of 1923 was marked by • A. Germany attempt to rebuild military • B. German reoccupation of Lorraine • C. British military takeover • D. Germany recklessly printing money • 8. 3 Reasons US gets involved in WWI: • 9. 4 leaders in the Paris Peace Conference: • 10. Name 2 conditions of the Treaty of Versailles on Germany: • Which of the following was NOT one of the elements of the Treaty of Versailles that angered Germany? • The infamous guilt clause • The amount of reparations it had to pay • The loss of territory it sustained • High tariffs enacted by the allies • Vladimir Lenin was the leader of the • Bolsheviks • Mensheviks • Social Revolutionaries • Young Turks • The Ottoman Turks signed a secret alliance • Germany, hoping to gain Russian territory • Japan, hoping to gain Chinese territory • France, hoping to gain Italian territory • Russia, hoping to gain Austrian territory • The Russian army during the war • Was smaller than Germany but better equipped • Was large but poorly equipped • Fought in very few battles • Was doing very well until the Russian Revolution
I. Stalin Revolution • A. Five Year Plans • Stalin industrialized military and factories not consumer goods • Achieve ambitious goals by instituting government control over economy • Factories and mines: Each factory and mine had production goals set by the state • Led to increases in industrial output
Collectivization = combine private farms into larger, mechanized state-run farms • Peasants and land: peasants who received land under Lenin, lost their lands and then are forced to work on these collective farms • Protesters: Peasants who protested were either executed by Stalin’s police forces or sent to the system of labor camps in Siberia called the Gulag
B. Collectivization of Agriculture • Stalin put small farms together and expected them to supply fixed amounts of goods • Collectivization was accomplished by violent suppression and disrupted farming causing a famine • Fear of Nazi regime in Germany caused Stalin to put emphasis on heavy industry and armaments
C. Terror and Opportunities • Population control: threats of force were best way to control population • Secret police were created by Stalin • Stalin helped Soviet Union industrialized faster than any other nation making Russia a power on the world stage • 1936: Stalin launched a series of show trials, in which people were tortured until they confessed to what Stalin wanted them to say • Ten million people were arrested, several million were immediately executed, others sent to the Gulag • Stalin ruled with an iron fist and ruthlessly removed all opposition
II. The Depression • A. Economic Crisis • October 29, 1929: Black Tuesday – U.S. Stock market crash, which leads to an international financial crisis • International Impact: • The United States had been world’s leading money lender and this leads to European banks crashing • Renewed interest in Marxist doctrines
Marx had predicted that capitalism would destroy itself • The new democratic gov’ts in Europe, especially Germany, were unable to deal with the crisis • Many people turn to political leaders who offer simple solutions in return for dictatorial power
B. Depression in Industrial Nations • France and Britain escaped because of colonies • Germany and Japan suffered relying on exports to pay for imports • C. Depression in Nonindustrial Nations • India and China were least effected • Price of gold shot up benefiting Southern African miners
Warm Up • Explain how the Great depression affects the world: • Explain Stalin’s view of communism and his application of show trials and work camps: • Explain why Marxist views come to the forefront in the “interwar years”
III. Rise of Fascism • A. Mussolini • In 1919 he founded the National Fascist Party • Fascism = an authoritarian form of gov’t that places the good of the nation above all else • Push extreme nationalism and love for the state • Envisioned an aggressive state ruled by a strong all-powerful leader, tended to glorify violence • Mussolini is appointed as prime minister of Italy
B. Hitler • Germany was digging out of WWI, hyperinflation of 1923, and Depression blaming Jews, socialists, and foreigners for their troubles • After the war he joined the National Socialist Party, or Nazi for short • Tries to seize power in the Beer Hall Putsch • Fails and Hitler goes to jail, where he writes Mein Kampf or “my struggle” • It outlines his major political ideas and goals • Austrian born German war veteran became the leader of the Nazi party in 1924 • Hitler assumes post of the Chancellor in 1933
Hitler in WWI • Hitler volunteered at age 25 by enlisting in a Bavarian Regiment • Throughout most of the war, Hitler had great luck avoiding life threatening injury. More than once he moved away from a spot where moments later a shell exploded killing or wounding everyone. • Hitler, unlike his fellow soldiers, never complained about bad food and the horrible conditions or talked about women, preferring to discuss art or history. He received a few letters but no packages from home and never asked for leave. His fellow soldiers regarded Hitler as too eager to please his superiors, but generally a likable loner notable for his luck in avoiding injury as well as his bravery.
Hitler's luck ran out when he was wounded in the leg by a shell fragment during the Battle of the Somme. He was hospitalized in Germany. It was his first time away from the front after two years of war. Following his recovery, he went sight seeing in Berlin, then was assigned to light duty in Munich. He was appalled at the apathy and anti-war sentiment among German civilians. He blamed the Jews for much of this and saw them as conspiring to spread unrest and undermine the German war effort.
In August 1918, he received the Iron Cross first class, a rarity for foot soldiers. Interestingly, the lieutenant who recommended him for the medal was a Jew, a fact Hitler would later obscure. Despite his good record and a total of five medals, he remained a corporal. Due to his unmilitary appearance and odd personality, his superiors felt he lacked leadership qualities and thought he would not command enough respect as a sergeant.
Impact in Germany: • Public work contracts, military build up, Hitler told women to leave workplace opening jobs for men leading to economic boom and low unemployment • C. Road to War • Hitler built up the army, withdrew from League of Nations, and established air force—all violated Treaty of Versailles • Hitler demanded Czechoslovakia at the Munich Conference in 1938 • Lebensraum: living space for the Germans (Germany is too small for such a superior race)
Germany begins to acquire territory • First step in Hitler’s plan was to annex Austria • German troops marched into Austria in 1938 without opposition and took over Austria • Next Hitler turned to Czechoslovakia, demanding the Sudetenland, a region with a large German population • The French and British met with Hitler at the Munich Conference in 1938 to decide the fate of the Sudetenland • Hitler demanded it or else war • France and Britain told Czechoslovakia to give Germany the Sudetenland - appeasement
Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact = between Germany and the Soviet Union • Stalin first tried to make an alliance with the French and British, but they refused • Hitler made this agreement because he was trying to prevent a two front war • Had every intention of invading Russia, wanted the land for the German people and to turn the Soviets into slaves or kill them, especially the communists • Stalin knew Hitler would eventually betray the pact and invade, needed time to rebuild the Soviet army
IV. East Asia, 1931-1945 A. Manchurian Incident of 1931 • Japan needed to end reliance on foreign trade and took Manchuria • Japan is now run by military not civilians • Japan invades Manchuria in 1931 • The League of Nations does nothing
B. Sino-Japanese War, 1937-1945 • 1937: Japan invades China • Japan takes Nanjing in 1938 (Rape of Nanjing) • Millions of Chinese will die, Rape of Nanjing • Mao Zedong builds an army and brings Communist party to power in China
six-week period following the Japanese capture of the city of Nanjing (Nanking), the former capital of the Republic of China, on December 13, 1937. During this period, hundreds of thousands of civilians were murdered and 20,000–80,000 women were raped by soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army. The massacre remains a contentious political issue, as various aspects of it have been disputed by some historical revisionists and Japanese nationalists, who have claimed that the massacre has been either exaggerated or wholly fabricated for propaganda purposes.
Warm Up • Stalin’s First Five Year Plan stressed • Increases in electricity and heavy industries • Production of consumer goods for export • Acquiring colonies to protect Soviet economy • Decentralized control and economic incentives • What were the reasons for the politics of appeasement • Fear of war • Fear of communism • Lack of familiarity with fascist tactics • All of these • At the height of the Stalinist terror of the 1930s • Millions of Jews were slaughtered • Moscow was burnt to the ground • USSR joined with Germany and Italy to invade Poland • Millions of ordinary Soviet citizens were sent to the Gulag • Which of the following was NOT one of the actions taken by Mussolini? • Fascists in government positions • Liberalized education • Allowed freedom of press • Crushed all political parties 5. Define Collectivization: 6. Explain Fascism: 7. How does Lebensraum lead to WWII? 8. Explain the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact: 9. Write three sentences on what you thought about Diamond Ch 7
V. Second World War • A. The War of Movement • Blitzkrieg “lightning war” • Emphasized speed – quick and devastating • The Luftwaffe (German air force) leads the way, bombing and damaging defenses • The planes are followed by fast-moving tanks and artillery, then soldiers who finished off any resistance • Axis Powers = Italy, Japan, and Germany • Allied Powers = France and Great Britain (will be joined later by other nations)
B. War in Europe and North Africa • Germany conquers Poland in less than one month • Germany attempts to defeat British but the RAF are able to finally hold off Germans “Where Napoleon failed, I shall succeed. I shall land on the shores of Britain.” - Hitler • Lasted from August 1940 – May 1941 • Hitler’s plan was to destroy the British Royal Air Force to make it possible to invade Britain • Needs to destroy the RAF before ships can safely land troops on British soil • Britain survives: “Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.” - Churchill
Germany invades Soviet Union only to be stopped by the Russian winter • Germany helped Italy in Africa by were finally defeated by the British (better supplies and intel)
C. War in Asia and the Pacific • US and Britain stopped shipments of steel, iron, and oil to Japan • December 7, 1941: Japan attacks Pearl Harbor • Was a two prong attack • Planes bombed airfields and ships at Pearl Harbor in three different waves • Lasted just under two hours • 200 aircraft destroyed all 8 battleships were either damaged or sunk in the harbor • Casualties • 2,403 dead and 1,100 wounded • 1,177 men die aboard the U.S.S. Arizona • At the same time the Japanese attack U.S. colonies of Wake Island and the Philippines
U.S. Congress declares war on Japan on Dec. 8 • Three days later Germany and Italy declare war on the U.S. • The U.S. and the Soviet Union are now part of the Allied Powers • June 1942 – Japanese want to capture this American military base • Japan wants to lure the Americans into battle and finish what they started at Pearl Harbor by destroying their fleet • The U.S. had broken the secret Japanese code and knew of the attack – U.S. ready and waiting • They destroy four aircraft carriers, only lose one of their own
D. End of War • 1943: US was helping supply Russia • Soviet invasion in the west and US and British invasion in Italy and France • The race to Berlin is on between the Soviets and the other Allies (Americans, British, and French) • Half a million Soviets surround Berlin in late August 1945 • Hitler commits suicide on May 2 and Berlin surrenders the same day • On May 7th Germany surrenders • May 8th is proclaimed V-E Day = Victory in Europe Day
1945 bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki • Aug. 6th, the Enola Gay drops the atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima • 80,000 die instantly, 35,000 injured • 2/3 of the buildings are destroyed • Fat Man dropped on Nagasaki – August 9th • Between 40,000 to 75,000 die • The Japanese agree to unconditional surrender on August 14th • August 15th is known as V-J Day = Victory Over Japan Day
Little boy • First atomic bomb ever to be used uranium 235 fission • Used on the city of Hiroshima • August 6,1945