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MOTIVATION

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  1. MOTIVATION Concepts and Rewards

  2. MOTIVATION DEFINED • Willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals.

  3. BASIC ASSUMPTIONS • Everyone is motivated • Key? • Two types of motivation • Intrinsic • Extrinsic

  4. TYPES OF MOTIVATION • Extrinsic Motivation: • "What gets rewarded gets done" • Based on extrinsic/tangible rewards • Intrinsic Motivation: • "What is rewarding gets done" • Based on intrinsic/intangible rewards

  5. Need (Maslow & ERG) Equity Reinforcement Expectancy Theory Goal-Setting Theory Motivation Theories

  6. Needs (stage of development) • Maslow • Self actualization • Self esteem • Social (love) • Safety • Physiological • Alderfer (ERG) • Growth • Relatedness • Existence

  7. NEED THEORIES OF MOTIVATION What are the implications of need-based theories for managers?

  8. TODAY’S TOPIC • Motivation

  9. EQUITY THEORY • People compare their outcome/input ratio to that of others • Conclusions • Ratios are equal (equity exists) • Ratios are unequal (inequity exists)

  10. RESPONSES TO EQUITY/INEQUITY • Equity: Maintenance • Inequity: • Change Inputs • Change Outcomes • Quit

  11. Forms of Justice

  12. REINFORCEMENT THEORY • Behavior is a function of consequences • Behavior that is rewarded persists • To increase behavior • Positive reinforcement • negative reinforcement

  13. REINFORCEMENT THEORY • To reduce behavior • Extinction • Punishment • Immediacy is crucial • Implications?

  14. BUT WE REWARD: WE HOPE FOR: Long-term growth Setting challenging goals Total Quality Candor Teamwork REWARDING B

  15. EXPECTANCY THEORY People are motivated to do that which they believe is possible and valuable • Expectancy: Belief that you can perform • Instrumentality: Belief that performance will lead to an outcome • Valence: Value of the outcome

  16. EXPECTANCY THEORY • According to expectancy theory, what must managers do to motivate their employees?

  17. GOAL SETTING THEORY • People naturally set goals • Benefits of Goals: • Increase effort • Direct effort • Increase persistence • Most effective goals are:

  18. Making MBO Work:SMARTER Goals • S • M • Improve conflict management process vs. • 80% reduction in grievances filed by second quarter • A • R • T • E • R

  19. Need (Maslow & ERG) Equity Reinforcement Expectancy Theory Goal-Setting Theory Motivation Theories

  20. Effective Rewards & Incentive Systems:

  21. NORDSTROMS • Using theories of motivation & related keys to effective incentive systems, evaluate the Incentive system in place at Nordstroms. • What do you see as its strengths? • Any concerns/questions regarding the system? • Are Nordstrom employees pressured inappropriately by the sales-per-hour system? By management? • What (if any) changes would you recommend?

  22. NORDSTROMS • Using theories of motivation & related keys to effective incentive systems, evaluate the Incentive system in place at Nordstroms. • What do you see as its strengths?

  23. “This is Your Business. Treat it Like Your Own Business.” Highest sales productivity Earnings > $80,000 Compound growth in sales, earnings, stores sq. ft. Highly, educated workforce NORDSTROMS

  24. NORDSTROMS • Using theories of motivation & related keys to effective incentive systems, evaluate the Incentive system in place at Nordstroms. • What do you see as its strengths? • Any potential concerns?

  25. “It’s fear that Provides Great Customer Service” Local 1001 publicity campaign Union complaint with Washington Dept. L & I NLRB charges $15 million reserve against earnings shareholder class action suit employee class action suit Wall Street Journal story 60 Minutes TV story “This is Your Business. Treat it Like Your Own Business.” Highest sales productivity Earnings > $80,000 Compound growth in sales, earnings, stores sq. ft. Highly, educated workforce NORDSTROMS

  26. NORDSTROMS • Are Nordstrom employees pressured inappropriately by the sales-per-hour system? By management?

  27. NORDSTROMS

  28. NORDSTROMS • Using theories of motivation & related keys to effective incentive systems, evaluate the Incentive system in place at Nordstroms. • What do you see as its strengths? • Any concerns/questions regarding the system? • Are Nordstrom employees pressured inappropriately by the sales-per-hour system? By management? • What (if any) changes would you recommend?