CHAPTER 2 GEODEMOGRAPHY: PEOPLING THE EARTH - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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CHAPTER 2 GEODEMOGRAPHY: PEOPLING THE EARTH
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CHAPTER 2 GEODEMOGRAPHY: PEOPLING THE EARTH

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  1. CHAPTER 2GEODEMOGRAPHY: PEOPLING THE EARTH

  2. Definition: Demography • Statistical analysis of human population • Spatial Density • Humans are quite unevenly distributed over the Earth’s surface • Population densities range from zero to over 2,000 people per square mile

  3. What is studied? • Areas of inquiry • Fertility • Gender • Health • Age • Nutrition • Mortality • Migration

  4. What is studied? • Also study thespatial variation of other demographic qualities. • Birthrate differences • Death rates • Overpopulation • Sex ratios • Age groups • Crime • Quality of life • Human mobility

  5. Density and Distribution • Population distribution and density • Uneven population distribution by continent • Density divided into categories • Density does not indicate standard of living, overpopulation, or under population • Physiological density difficult to measure • More useful than the arithmetic density • Agricultural Density better for comparing countries • Shifting population densities • Migrations

  6. Density and Distribution • Formal regions devised by population geographers • Distribution of people by continents • Eurasia 73.3 percent • North America 7.3 percent • Africa 12.7 percent • South America 5.5 percent • Australia and Pacific Islands < 0.5 percent

  7. 3 1 2

  8. Cartogram of World Population

  9. Density and Distribution • Population density categories for demographic regions • Thickly settled areas – 250 or more per sq mi • Moderately settled areas – 60 to 250 per sq mi • Thinly settled areas – 2 to 60 per sq mi • Categories based on single trait of population density. (Formal Regions)

  10. Choropleth Map of Arithmetic Density

  11. Density and Distribution

  12. Physiological Density

  13. Agricultural Density

  14. Demographic regions • Is the world really overcrowded? • Who determines or defines “overcrowded”? • How is this to be determined? • Does population density give us the full picture?

  15. Demographic regions • Population density • What population densities do not tell us • Standard of living • Over or under population • As a statistic concept it conceals changes that constantly occur

  16. Components of Change • Patterns of natality • Birthrate – measured as the number of births in a year per thousand people. • Total fertility rate (TFR) • More useful measure than birthrate • Varies greatly from one part of the world to another • Key number is 2.1 (replacement rate)

  17. Total Fertility Rate (TFR) • Measured as the average number of children born to each woman during her reproductive years • Focuses on female segment of population and reveals family size • In Europe TFR now stands at 1.4 • Sub-Saharan Africa’s overall rate is 6.0, Niger is highest with 7.4 • Remember that 2.1 indicates no growth – just replacement

  18. Components of Change • Birth rate does not generally correspond to population density • Inverse situation in China/Europe and interior of Africa • High birthrates concentrated in a belt through the lower latitudes • Mid-latitudes and high-latitude countries have low birthrates • Birthrates now declining in most all countries

  19. Birth Rates

  20. Components of Change • The geography of mortality • Mortality rate: Number of deaths per 1000 people • In developed world most people die of age-induced degenerative conditions • In poorer countries contagious diseases leading cause of death • Discussion of differing death rates in different parts of the world

  21. Death Rates

  22. Components of Change • Reasons for differences in death rates when compared with birth rates • Countries with high birth rates tend to have younger population • More developed regions, such as Europe, including Russia, have low birth rates and an aging population that is reflected in higher death rates. • Australia, Canada, and the United States attract more young immigrants

  23. Components of Change • Nature seeking to find a balance may have developed effective diseases to control population in Africa where our species originated. • Changing climatic patterns imposed a great desert across Africa blocking disease spread from humid tropic region • AIDS started in Tropical Africa but has diffused to more temperate climates

  24. Components of Change • Fatal or potentially fatal diseases can occur in all parts of the world • Many are increasingly resistant to medicines – antibiotic overuse • Monitored by World Health Organization and US Center for Disease Control • Next slide shows that few areas of the world have been spared. • Medical Geography – name given to spatial study of human health

  25. Components of Change • Death comes in different forms geographically • In developed world – age-induced degenerative conditions • Enter the “sandwich generation” • In developing nations contagious diseases are leading cause of death

  26. Sandwich Generation

  27. Components of Change • Population explosion • Triggered by a dramatic decrease in the death rate • No universal decline in the TFR • Example of the geometric doubling of world’s population • Discussion of Thomas Malthus predicting the population explosion

  28. U.S.A. Population Pyramid Population Measures & Structure

  29. Infant Mortality Rates

  30. Life Expectancy at Birth

  31. % of Population under age 15

  32. Was Malthus totally off base? • What could he not have foreseen? • Ingenuity: increasing food supply • Green Revolution • 21st century Organic Farming Revolution • World's falling TFR

  33. Components of Change • Or population implosion? • Karl Marx—communistic view of society – class struggle driven by economics • Ingenuity of humans in increasing food supply • Green Revolution • World's falling TFR

  34. Components of Change • World population explosion is not a worldwide phenomena • Confined to underdeveloped and developed countries with high TFR • All industrialized, technologically advanced countries have achieved low fertility rates • Stabilized or declining populations • Passed through the demographic transformation

  35. Many developing countries are stuck here!

  36. Demographic transformation • In pre-industrial societies, birth and death rates are normally high • Coming of industrial era • Medical advances and diet improvements • Sets state for drop in death rates • Life expectancy soared from average of 35 years to 75 years or more at present • Results in population explosion • Eventually leads to decline in birth rate following decline in death rate

  37. Demographic transformation • In post-industrial period, demographic transformation produces actual zero population growth or decline • Stages 3 and 4 of demographic transformation • Require effective methods of birth control • Traditionally, infanticide served as principal method in some cultures • Abortion remains common in some parts of the world • More common are various contraceptive devices

  38. Cape Verde – Chile – Denmark

  39. China – One Child Policy

  40. Family Planning % of Women Using Family Planning

  41. Family Planning Methods