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Chapter 25

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Chapter 25

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  1. Chapter 25 The History of Life on Earth

  2. Overview: Lost Worlds • Past organisms were very different from those now alive • The fossil record shows macroevolutionary changes over large time scales including • The emergence of terrestrial vertebrates • The origin of photosynthesis • Long-term impacts of mass extinctions

  3. Fig. 25-1

  4. Fig 25-UN1 Cryolophosaurus

  5. Concept 25.1: Conditions on early Earth made the origin of life possible • Chemical and physical processes on early Earth may have produced very simple cells through a sequence of stages: 1. Abiotic synthesis of small organic molecules 2. Joining of these small molecules into macromolecules 3. Packaging of molecules into “protobionts” 4. Origin of self-replicating molecules

  6. Synthesis of Organic Compounds on Early Earth • Earth formed about 4.6 billion years ago, along with the rest of the solar system • Earth’s early atmosphere likely contained water vapor and chemicals released by volcanic eruptions (nitrogen, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide)

  7. A. I. Oparin and J. B. S. Haldane hypothesized that the early atmosphere was a reducing environment • Stanley Miller and Harold Urey conducted lab experiments that showed that the abiotic synthesis of organic molecules in a reducing atmosphere is possible

  8. However, the evidence is not yet convincing that the early atmosphere was in fact reducing • Instead of forming in the atmosphere, the first organic compounds may have been synthesized near submerged volcanoes and deep-sea vents Video: Tubeworms Video: Hydrothermal Vent

  9. Fig. 25-2

  10. Amino acids have also been found in meteorites

  11. Abiotic Synthesis of Macromolecules • Small organic molecules polymerize when they are concentrated on hot sand, clay, or rock

  12. Protobionts • Replication and metabolism are key properties of life • Protobionts are aggregates of abiotically produced molecules surrounded by a membrane or membrane-like structure • Protobionts exhibit simple reproduction and metabolism and maintain an internal chemical environment

  13. Experiments demonstrate that protobionts could have formed spontaneously from abiotically produced organic compounds • For example, small membrane-bounded droplets called liposomes can form when lipids or other organic molecules are added to water

  14. Fig. 25-3 20 µm Glucose-phosphate Glucose-phosphate Phosphatase Starch Amylase Phosphate Maltose (a) Simple reproduction by liposomes Maltose (b) Simple metabolism

  15. Fig. 25-3a 20 µm (a) Simple reproduction by liposomes

  16. Fig. 25-3b Glucose-phosphate Glucose-phosphate Phosphatase Starch Amylase Phosphate Maltose Maltose (b) Simple metabolism

  17. Self-Replicating RNA and the Dawn of Natural Selection • The first genetic material was probably RNA, not DNA • RNA molecules called ribozymes have been found to catalyze many different reactions • For example, ribozymes can make complementary copies of short stretches of their own sequence or other short pieces of RNA

  18. Early protobionts with self-replicating, catalytic RNA would have been more effective at using resources and would have increased in number through natural selection • The early genetic material might have formed an “RNA world”

  19. Concept 25.2: The fossil record documents the history of life • The fossil record reveals changes in the history of life on earth

  20. The Fossil Record • Sedimentary rocks are deposited into layers called strata and are the richest source of fossils Video: Grand Canyon

  21. Fig. 25-4 Rhomaleosaurus victor, a plesiosaur Present Dimetrodon 100 million years ago Casts of ammonites 175 200 270 300 Hallucigenia 4.5 cm 375 Coccosteus cuspidatus 400 1 cm Dickinsonia costata 500 525 2.5 cm 565 Stromatolites Tappania, a unicellular eukaryote 600 3,500 1,500 Fossilized stromatolite

  22. Fig. 25-4-1 Hallucigenia 1 cm Dickinsonia costata 500 525 2.5 cm 4.5 cm 565 Stromatolites Tappania, a unicellular eukaryote 600 3,500 1,500 Fossilized stromatolite

  23. Fig. 25-4a-2 Rhomaleosaurus victor, a plesiosaur Present 100 million years ago Dimetrodon Casts of ammonites 175 200 270 300 4.5 cm 375 Coccosteus cuspidatus 400

  24. Fig. 25-4b Rhomaleosaurus victor, a plesiosaur

  25. Fig. 25-4c Dimetrodon

  26. Fig. 25-4d Casts of ammonites

  27. Fig. 25-4e 4.5 cm Coccosteuscuspidatus

  28. Fig. 25-4f 1 cm Hallucigenia

  29. Fig. 25-4g 2.5 cm Dickinsonia costata

  30. Fig. 25-4h Tappania, a unicellular eukaryote

  31. Fig. 25-4i Stromatolites

  32. Fig. 25-4j Fossilized stromatolite

  33. Few individuals have fossilized, and even fewer have been discovered • The fossil record is biased in favor of species that • Existed for a long time • Were abundant and widespread • Had hard parts Animation: The Geologic Record

  34. How Rocks and Fossils Are Dated • Sedimentary strata reveal the relative ages of fossils • The absolute ages of fossils can be determined by radiometric dating • A “parent” isotope decays to a “daughter” isotope at a constant rate • Each isotope has a known half-life, the time required for half the parent isotope to decay

  35. Fig. 25-5 Accumulating “daughter” isotope Fraction of parent isotope remaining 1/2 Remaining “parent” isotope 1/4 1/8 1/16 4 3 2 1 Time (half-lives)

  36. Radiocarbon dating can be used to date fossils up to 75,000 years old • For older fossils, some isotopes can be used to date sedimentary rock layers above and below the fossil

  37. The magnetism of rocks can provide dating information • Reversals of the magnetic poles leave their record on rocks throughout the world

  38. The Origin of New Groups of Organisms • Mammals belong to the group of animals called tetrapods • The evolution of unique mammalian features through gradual modifications can be traced from ancestral synapsids through the present

  39. Fig. 25-6 Synapsid (300 mya) Temporal fenestra Key Articular Dentary Quadrate Squamosal Therapsid (280 mya) Reptiles (including dinosaurs and birds) Temporal fenestra EARLY TETRAPODS Dimetrodon Early cynodont (260 mya) Synapsids Very late cynodonts Temporal fenestra Earlier cynodonts Therapsids Later cynodont (220 mya) Mammals Very late cynodont (195 mya)

  40. Fig. 25-6-1 Synapsid (300 mya) Temporal fenestra Key Articular Quadrate Therapsid (280 mya) Dentary Squamosal Temporal fenestra

  41. Fig. 25-6-2 Early cynodont (260 mya) Key Articular Temporal fenestra Quadrate Dentary Squamosal Later cynodont (220 mya) Very late cynodont (195 mya)

  42. Concept 25.3: Key events in life’s history include the origins of single-celled and multicelled organisms and the colonization of land • The geologic record is divided into the Archaean, the Proterozoic, and the Phanerozoic eons

  43. Table 25-1

  44. Table 25-1a

  45. Table 25-1b

  46. The Phanerozoic encompasses multicellular eukaryotic life • The Phanerozoic is divided into three eras: the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic • Major boundaries between geological divisions correspond to extinction events in the fossil record

  47. Fig. 25-7 Ceno- zoic Meso- zoic Humans Paleozoic Colonization of land Animals Origin of solar system and Earth 4 1 Proterozoic Archaean Prokaryotes years ago Billions of 3 2 Multicellular eukaryotes Single-celled eukaryotes Atmospheric oxygen

  48. The First Single-Celled Organisms • The oldest known fossils are stromatolites, rock-like structures composed of many layers of bacteria and sediment • Stromatolites date back 3.5 billion years ago • Prokaryotes were Earth’s sole inhabitants from 3.5 to about 2.1 billion years ago

  49. Fig 25-UN2 1 4 Billions of years ago 2 3 Prokaryotes

  50. Photosynthesis and the Oxygen Revolution • Most atmospheric oxygen (O2) is of biological origin • O2 produced by oxygenic photosynthesis reacted with dissolved iron and precipitated out to form banded iron formations • The source of O2 was likely bacteria similar to modern cyanobacteria