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Chapter 11 WATER. Mr. Manskopf Notes can also be found at http://www.manskopf.com. How many bodies of water can you identify/locate? Is there more or less water on Earth today then there was 1 billion years ago?. Goals for Chapter 11…. Describe where Earth’s water resources are located.

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chapter 11 water

Chapter 11WATER

Mr. Manskopf

Notes can also be found at http://www.manskopf.com

slide2

How many bodies of water can you identify/locate?

Is there more or less water on Earth today then there was 1 billion years ago?

goals for chapter 11
Goals for Chapter 11…
  • Describe where Earth’s water resources are located.
  • How is Earth’s water a limited resource?
  • How can we manage our water resources better?
  • What are the main causes and impacts of water pollution?
slide5

Next time rain drops fall on you, think about where that water might have been just a few days ago.

slide9

It is sacred to some : The Maya believed natural wells, such as the Xkeken cenote in Mexico's Yucatán, led to the underworld.

water is unique
Water Is Unique
  • Can’t live without
  • Takes long time to change temperature
  • Stays liquid over large range of temps.
  • Expands when freezes
  • Great at dissolving things
  • Commonly found as solid, liquid and gas
section 1 water resources
Section 1: Water Resources

GOALS:

  • Describe the location of water on Earth’s surface.
  • How does the water cycle “work?”
  • Explain why freshwater is a limited resource.
  • TERMS: surface water, river system, watershed, groundwater, aquifer, porosity, permeability, recharge zone, water cycle
water cycle13
Water Cycle

The continual process by which water moves through living and nonliving parts of our world.

  • Solar Powered
  • Renewable Resource
  • “Steps” followed
where is water found
Where is water found?
  • 71% of earth is covered in water
  • 97% of that is in oceans
  • Most of the remaining 3% fresh, mainly in ice caps and glaciers.
surface water
Surface Water
  • Fresh water on Earth’s land
  • Rivers
  • Lakes
  • Streams
  • Ponds
  • Critical for: drinking, transportation, waste removal, industry, food, farming, recreation

Delaware River

Where does all that water come from???

slide18

Watershed: an area of land that is drained by a single river

  • Bathtub analogy
  • How can a farmer in NY State Impact drinking water in Camden?
  • Who should set pollution laws LOCAL, SATE, FEDERAL?
slide20

Mississippi River Watershed is the largest in U.S.

How does a cattle farmer in Montana potentially impact a shrimp fisherman in Louisiana?

RIVER SYSTEM

groundwater23
Groundwater
  • Water beneath Earth’s surface, located in rocks, sediment and soil
  • Camden’s tap water
  • How does it get there?
  • How can we use it?
groundwater24
Groundwater

What is a recharge zone?

aquifer
Aquifer
  • Underground rock formation containing water
  • Important source of water
porosity
Porosity
  • How much space (pores) or holes found in rock
  • Where water can flow through
  • Porous rock can hold lots of water
permeable vs impermeable
Permeable vs. Impermeable
  • The ability of rock or soil to allow water to flow through it
  • Sand and gravel are permeable
  • Clay and blacktop are impermeable
section 1 review
Section 1 REVIEW
  • Describe the location of water on Earth’s surface.
  • How does the water cycle “work?”
  • Explain why freshwater is a limited resource.
  • TERMS: surface water, river system, watershed, groundwater, aquifer, porosity, permeability, recharge zone, water cycle
section 2 water use and management
Section 2 : Water Use and Management

GOALS:

  • Identify how water is used in home, industry and agriculture.
  • Explain how and why water is treated before coming to your home.
  • Describe ways to increase water supplies
  • Identify ways to conserve water
  • TERMS: potable, pathogen, dam, reservoir, desalinization
slide35
Aylito Binayo's feet know the mountain. Even at four in the morning she can run down the rocks to the river by starlight alone and climb the steep mountain back up to her village with 50 pounds of water on her back. She has made this journey three times a day for nearly all her 25 years. So has every other woman in her village of Foro, in the Konso district of southwestern Ethiopia. Binayo dropped out of school when she was eight years old, in part because she had to help her mother fetch water from the Toiro River. The water is dirty and unsafe to drink; every year that the ongoing drought continues, the once mighty river grows more exhausted. But it is the only water Foro has ever had.
how much water do you use
How Much Water Do You Use

Average person in U.S. uses about 80 gallons a day

how much water is needed
How Much Water Is Needed

http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/freshwater/embedded-water/

Your water footprint

http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/freshwater/water-footprint-calculator/

making water safe
Making Water Safe

Potable: safe to drink

Most water needs to be treated

Pathogens: organisms that cause diseases

Bacteria, viruses, worms

uses of water
Uses of Water

Industrial Water Use

  • 19% of worldwide water use
  • Cooling power plants
  • To make “stuff”
uses of water44
Uses of Water

Agriculture:

  • 67% of worldwide water use
  • Irrigation: providing water to plants
  • 80 gallons to produce 1 ear of corn
  • 1 lb. beef = 1,000 gal.
  • LOTS OF WATER
irrigation46
Irrigation

As much as 80% normally evaporates

Drip Irrigation, reduces that number greatly

water management
Water Management
  • Humans have altered water flow for thousands of years
  • Engineering
  • Dams, canals, pipes, towers bring water to where it is needed
dams and reservoirs
Dams and Reservoirs

Reservoir: an artificial lake often behind a dam

Dams:

  • Flood control
  • Recreation
  • Supply water
  • Generate electricity
slide51

Pros and Cons of Dams

Downstream cropland and

estuaries are deprived of

nutrient-rich silt

Flooded land destroys forests or cropland and

displaces people

Large losses

of water through

evaporation

Downstream flooding is reduced

Reservoir is useful for recreation and fishing

Provides water

for year-round

irrigation of

cropland

Can produce cheap electricity (hydropower)

Migration and spawning of some fish are disrupted

desalinization
Desalinization

Removing salt from salt water

  • Has a lot of promise
  • Very energy intensive
  • Very expensive
  • What to do with waste?
  • Future?
water conservation
Water Conservation

Fastest, easiest way to increase water supplies is to use less water

  • Agriculture
  • Industry
  • At home

What are some ways you can conserve water?

section 2 review
Section 2 Review
  • Identify how water is used in home, industry and agriculture.
  • Explain how and why water is treated before coming to your home.
  • Describe ways to increase water supplies
  • Identify ways to conserve water
  • TERMS: potable, pathogen, dam, reservoir, desalinization
section 3 water pollution
Section 3: Water Pollution

GOALS:

  • Compare point-sources and non-point sources of water pollution
  • Describe the 5 classifications of water pollution
  • Explain why it is difficult to clean up groundwater
  • What does the Clean Water Act do?
  • TERMS: water pollution, point-source, non-point source, wastewater, biomagnification, eutrophication
what is water pollution
What is Water Pollution?

Water Pollution: is the introduction of chemical, physical, or biological substances that affects organisms that depend upon it

  • Many types of water pollution
point source
Point Source

Pollution coming from one single place

  • Leaking tanker
  • Pipe from a factory
  • Leaking underground storage tank
  • Can easily be ID and traced
non point source
Non-Point Source

Comes from various sources that are hard to identify and may be spread over a large area

  • Runoff from farms
  • Runoff from cities
  • Hard to ID
  • Hard t o control
  • HUGE PROBLEM
point vs non point

NONPOINT SOURCES

Rural homes

Cropland

Urban streets

Animal feedlot

POINT SOURCES

Suburban development

Factory

Wastewater treatment plant

Point vs Non-Point
types of water pollution 1 wastewater
Types of Water Pollution1) Wastewater

Water that flows down the drain

  • What’s in it?
  • Where does it go? (out-of-sight, out-of-mind)
  • Is it harmful?
2 eutrophication
2) Eutrophication

Too many nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) in the water causes algal blooms and decreased oxygen in water

  • Causes “dead zones” in water
  • Little or no oxygen
3 thermal pollution
3) Thermal Pollution

Occurs when temperature of water rises rapidly

  • Power plants
  • Factories cooling equipment
  • Causes fish kills
  • Decreases oxygen in water
4 groundwater pollution
4) Groundwater Pollution

Pollution that percolates down from land or surface water pollution

  • Fertilizers, pesticides, leaking underground tanks
  • Many leaking underground tanks
5 ocean pollution
5) Ocean Pollution

Pollutants directly or indirectly put into oceans

  • Oil spills
  • Runoff
  • River pollution
  • Cruise Ships
  • Development along coasts
  • Increasingly a problem
cleaning up water pollution
Cleaning Up Water Pollution

1969 Cuyahoga River in Cleveland caught fire

1972 Congress passes Clean Water Act

1970s Environmental Activism/Awareness

cleaning up water pollution83
Cleaning Up Water Pollution

Clean Water Act of 1972 was to “restore and maintain the physical, chemical and biological integrity of the nation’s water.”

  • Fishable and Swim able
  • Better, but… still many polluted water bodies
section 3 review
Section 3 Review

GOALS:

  • Compare point-sources and non-point sources of water pollution
  • Describe the 5 classifications of water pollution
  • Explain why it is difficult to clean up groundwater
  • What does the Clean Water Act do?
  • TERMS: water pollution, point-source, non-point source, wastewater, biomagnification, eutrophication
chapter 11 review
Chapter 11 Review
  • Describe where Earth’s water resources are located.
  • How is Earth’s water a limited resource?
  • How can we manage our water resources better?
  • What are the main causes and impacts of water pollution?
slide86

What does the future hold for water on planet Earth?

Climate Change?

Melting Glaciers?

Human Population rising?

Water Scarcity?