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America Moves Toward War: Part II

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America Moves Toward War: Part II. Do Now!.

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Do Now!

We look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms. The first is freedom of speech and expression – everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way – everywhere in the world. The third freedom from want… everywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear… anywhere in the world.

-Who is the speaker of this quote?

-What is this quote in reference to?


Americans Join the War Effort

  • After Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, the Japan Times newspaper said America was “trembling in their shoes”
  • But if America was trembling, it was with rage, not fear
  • “Remember Pearl Harbor” was the rallying cry as America entered WWII

Selective Service and the G.I.

  • After Pearl Harbor five million Americans enlisted to fight in the war
  • The Selective Service expanded the draft and eventually provided an additional 10 million soldiers
  • Basic training lasted 8 weeks

Expanding the Military: Women

  • Army Chief of Staff General George Marshall pushed for the formation of the Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC)
  • Under this program women worked in non-combat roles such as nurses, ambulance drivers, radio operators, and pilots

Recruiting and Discrimination

  • Despite discrimination at home, minority populations contributed to the war effort
  • 1,000,000 African Americans served in the military
  • 300,000 Mexican-Americans
  • 33,000 Japanese Americans
  • 25,000 Native Americans
  • 13,000 Chinese Americans

These “Golden 13” Great Lakes officers scored the highest marks ever on the Officers exam in 1944


A Production Miracle

  • Americans converted their auto industry into a war industry
  • The nation’s automobile plants began to produce tanks, planes, boats, and command cars
  • Many other industries also converted to war-related supplies

Labor's Contribution

  • By 1944, nearly 18 million workers were laboring in war industries (3x the # in 1941)
  • More than 6 million of these were women
    • Earned less than what men earned
    • Employers could not hire enough women when they realized that women could do the same work as men
  • Nearly 2 million were minorities
    • A. Philip Randolph
    • Executive Order 8802

Hollywood Helps Mobilization

  • The following is a few films that were created to inspire U.S. involvement:
    • The Ramparts We Watched & Baptism of Fire (1940)
    • Why We Fight (1942 -)
    • Hitler, Beast of Berlin (1939)
    • Confessions of a Nazi Spy (1939)
  • Most Important: Although these films portrayed Nazis in a negative light, the films made during the Second World War did NOT address the Holocaust, nor did they portray Jews

Mobilization of Scientists

  • In 1941, FDR created the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) to bring scientists into the war effort
  • Focus was on radar and sonar to locate submarines
  • Also the scientists worked on penicillin and pesticides like DDT
  • The Manhattan Project

Federal Gov't Takes Control: Inflation

  • With prices of goods threatening to rise out of control, FDR responded by creating the Office of Price Administration (OPA)
  • The OPA froze prices on most goods and encouraged the purchase of war bonds to fight inflation

Be sure to Review the Chart on Pg. 773


War Production Board

  • To ensure the troops had ample resources, FDR created the WPB
  • The WPB decided which companies would convert to wartime production and how to best allocate raw materials to those industries

Collection Drives

  • The WPB also organized nationwide drives to collect scrap iron, tin cans, paper, rags and cooking fat for recycling
  • Additionally, the OPA set up a system of rationing
  • Households had set allocations of scarce goods – gas, meat, shoes, sugar, coffee

The Pin-Ups!

Betty Grable – An All American Girl! - #1 selling Pin-Up in America

Rita Hayworth - #2 selling Pin-Up in America


Exit Question

  • Has U.S. mobilization for war evolved? If yes, in what ways? If no, how has it remained the same? Explain your answer.