Chapter 2 – European Colonies in America Section Notes Video European Colonies in America European Settlements in North America The English in Virginia The Northern Colonies The Middle and Southern Colonies Maps European Explorations of the Americas, 1492–1682 A Foothold in the New World Northern Colonies Middle and Southern Colonies History Close-up Plymouth Colony Quick Facts Images The English Colonies in the America Visual Summary: European Colonies in America The Spanish in America Jamestown and Plymouth Pocahontas Engraving Pocahontas by Henry Brueckner
Essential Question • What factors led to the development of the original 13 colonies?
Nations Explore the New World • In 1497 King Henry VII of England sent John Cabot, an Italian navigator, on an exploration voyage. • Cabot landed in Newfoundland and claimed it for England. He thought he was in Asia. • Sebastian Cabot, John’s son, launched a voyage looking for a Northwest Passage to the Pacific Ocean, creating a shorter sea route to Asia.
New France • 1524 Giovanni da Verrazano explored for France along coast from present-day Carolinas to Maine. • Jacques Cartier discovered St. Lawrence River. • Samuel de Champlain founded France’s first permanent settlement in New World. • Sieur de la Salle claimed land from Great Lakes to mouth of Mississippi. Nations Explore the New World • England’s Navy • Queen Elizabeth I built England into a sea power. • Sir Francis Drake circumnavigated the globe while plundering Spanish ships and towns on the Pacific coast of South America. • Spanish Armada sent to invade England was defeated by superior English navy • New Netherland • In 1609 the Dutch sent HenryHudson to search for a Northwest Passage. He found what is now called the HudsonRiver. • The Dutch claimed territory along the Atlantic coast. • The colony of NewNetherland drew settlers from all over northern Europe. *write this somewhere French want more fur Set up colonies based on fur trade
The English in Virginia • The Main Idea • After several failures, the English established a permanent settlement at Jamestown, Virginia. • Preview Questions: • Why were the first English colonies established? • What helped the Jamestown colony survive? • How did Virginia grow and change during the 1600s?
Standard Preview SSUSH1 The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century. a. Explain Virginia’s development; include the Virginia Company, tobacco cultivation, relationships with Native Americans such as Powhatan, development of the House of Burgesses, Bacon’s Rebellion, and the development of slavery.
English settlers had many reasons to come to the New World. There were economic problems in England, and many wanted new opportunities. English farm workers were unemployed, and small farmers were struggling. In the wealthy class, large plots of land had been divided among heirs for years until land was scarce. Young men who did not inherit land were looking for adventure. King James issued a charter that divided America between the Plymouth Company and the London Company. The two groups were joint-stock companies. They were to govern and maintain the colonies. Profits from the colonies went back to the companies’ investors. The First English Colonies
The First Settlers In 1606 the London Company sent three ships and 144 men to Virginia. 100 survived the crossing. They built Jamestown 60 miles up the JamesRiver. Site was low and swampy, filled with malaria-carrying mosquitoes. Jamestown was in the territory of the Powhatan Confederacy, led by Powhatan. Water supply wasn’t safe; some settlers died of malaria or dysentery from drinking it. Other settlers became too weak to work, while others spent more time looking for treasure than for food. Many were English gentlemen, unused to physical labor. Only 38 were alive when more English colonists arrived. The Jamestown Colony
Captain John Smith helped trade for food with the Native Americans, built houses, and explored the area. When the Powhatans captured him and were about to kill him, Powhatan’s daughter, Pocahontas, intervened. Later she helped keep the peace between the Powhatans and the colonists. *In 1608 Smith became the leader of Jamestown. Organized raids to steal food from the Indians Imposed a law that if a man wanted to eat, he had to work More settlers came in 1609. That winter was called the starving time because the Indians, who were angry about the food raids, killed the settlers’ livestock and prevented them from hunting. The Jamestown Colony
High Mortality Rates • 1607: 104 colonists • By spring, 1608: 38 survived • 1609: 300 more immigrants • By spring, 1610: 60 survived • 1610 – 1624: 10,000 immigrants • 1624 population: 1,200 • Adult life expectancy: 40 years • Death of children before age 5: 80% The Starving Time, 1610
“Widowarchy” High mortality among husbands and fathers left many women in the Chesapeake colonies with unusual autonomy and wealth!
Early Colonial Tobacco 1618— Virginia produces 20,000 poundsof tobacco. 1622 — Despite losing nearly one-third of its colonists in an Indian attack, Virginia produces 60,000 poundsof tobacco. 1627 — Virginia produces 500,000 pounds of tobacco. 1629 — Virginia produces 1,500,000 poundsof tobacco.
*Growing tobacco finally made Jamestown profitable. *John Rolfe was the first settler to grow tobacco. Rolfe and Pocahontas married. Their marriage secured peace between the settlers and the Powhatans. Conflicts with Powhatans arose by 1622. Both Pocahontas and Powhatan were dead. The English farmers were taking over more Indian lands to farm tobacco. In 1622 the Indians launched a surprise attack on Jamestown, killing many settlers, including John Rolfe. Attacks persisted for twenty more years. The Jamestown Colony
*The Virginia Company offered headrights, 50-acre grants of land. There were various ways to obtain them The company brought in skilled artisans to help the economy grow The company also sent 100 women to marry the colonists and make society more stable Virginia Grows and Changes
Virginia Grows and Changes • The Virginia Company formed America’s first legislature, the House of Burgesses (1619). • Members were white male landowners. • This group had the power to raise taxes and make laws. First representative self governing body in North America
Virginia Grows and Changes • The majority of colonial workers were indentured servants*. • They were contracted to work for a certain number of years. When the contract was up, they were free to go. • By the late 1600s, there were fewer indentured servants. • Landowners saw advantages to using slaves, such as not having to pay slaves like indentured servants.
Review Document C with your group.Consider this questions: How many men are aboard the ship?How many women?What are the age ranges?What do you think their plans are for Virginia?
If you can’t bring more people to the New World with the promise of land, how will the settlers continue increasing their labor force? Virginia Grows and Changes • Conflicts among settlers • Settlers on the frontier wanted to push farther westward, into Indian lands. • The governor, Sir William Berkeley, wanted good relations with the Native Americans to protect his fur trade with them. Wealthy frontier tobacco planter, *Nathaniel Bacon, formed an army after one of his workers was killed in an Indian attack. • Bacon’s army attacked Jamestown, which was burned in the fight. The governor fled. • *Bacon’s Rebellioncollapsed after Bacon suddenly became ill and died. • As a result, the House of Burgesses opened more frontier land. Involuntary Servitude = SLAVERY
Show what you know?? In your group, answer the three preview questions? • Why were the first English colonies established? • What helped the Jamestown colony survive? • How did Virginia grow and change during the 1600s?
Standard Review SSUSH1 The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century. a. Explain Virginia’s development; include the Virginia Company, tobacco cultivation, relationships with Native Americans such as Powhatan, development of the House of Burgesses, Bacon’s Rebellion, and the development of slavery.
Possible EOCT Questions Which of the following BEST describes Jamestown? A. It was the first English colony in North America. B. The colony thrived most before tobacco was discovered. C. Colonists normally lived in peace with Native Americans. D. Slavery became less important after Bacon's Rebellion.
Possible EOCT Questions Who was Powhatan? A. a Native American chief who made peace with the Pilgrims and helped them through their first winter B. a Native American chief who ruled over much of the Virginia territory when English settlers arrived C. a Native American chief who was shot and killed by New Englanders in Rhode Island D. the first African slave to arrive in Virginia by way of the Middle Passage
Possible EOCT Questions The French founded Quebec MAINLY for what reason? A. They wanted a place in North America to raise tobacco. B. It was a good spot to wage war against the Spanish. C. It provided an excellent location for both trade and defense. D. They thought it would allow them to establish more colonies up and down the East Coast.
Possible EOCT Questions Which of the following is the correct chronological order in which the people listed would have arrived in North America? A. Spanish explorers, Native Americans, African Americans, English colonists. B. Native Americans, colonists in Jamestown, colonists in Massachusetts, the first African Americans in the English colonies C. French trappers, Iroquois, Spanish missionaries, Jamestown colonists D. Spanish explorers, Jamestown colonists, first African Americans in the English colonies, the Pilgrims
The Northern Colonies • The Main Idea • The pilgrims founded colonies in Massachusetts based on Puritan religious ideals, while dissent led to the founding of other New England colonies. • Preview Questions: • Why did the Puritans flee England? • How did dissent among the Puritans threaten the New England colonies? • What was life like in New England?
Puritans wanted to “purify” the Church of England. Wanted simpler church service Objected to the wealth and power of bishops Separatists were more strict Puritans. Wanted to remove all traces of Catholicism from their religion Wanted total separation from the Church of England Church of England was the official church of the land. English subjects required to attend services and pay taxes to support the church Dissenters were fined and put in prison Puritans Flee to Freedom
Plymouth Colony Some English Separatists moved to the Netherlands in 1608. Their children were becoming more Dutch than English. War with Spain seemed near. They were ready to move to the New World. Led by William Bradford, 35 Separatists joined 66 others on the Mayflower in 1620. Their sponsor, the Virginia Company, intended they land near the Hudson River. They landed instead at Cape Cod. Founded PlymouthColony south of present-day Boston Colony never grew very large Puritans Flee to Freedom What was the document created aboard the Mayflower? Why was that significant?
Puritans Flee to Freedom • Document B Please • Massachusetts Bay Colony • Puritan merchants formed the Massachusetts Bay Company. • In 1630 John Winthrop set out with 11 ships and 700 people for New England. • This colony grew faster than Plymouth. Other towns were established nearby. • Massachusetts General Court was formed. • Success of Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay colonies inspired the Great Migration. • Over 20,000 English men and • women came to settle in New • England.
Dissenters left the Massachusetts Bay Colony and settled new towns. Thomas Hooker, a Puritan minister, and his congregation settled in the Connecticut River Valley. They adopted America’s first written constitution: the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. It extended voting rights to all free men, not just church members. Roger Williams, a Separatist minister who believed in religious tolerance and the separation of church and government. Bought land from the Narragansetts to establish Providence, now Rhode Island Dissent among the Puritans
Dissent Among the Puritans • Anne Hutchinson believed that people did not need a minister’s teachings to be spiritual. Was imprisoned, tried, and banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony • Hutchinson’s brother-in-law left Massachusetts to start a settlement in present-day New Hampshire. In 1679 it became a royal colony, under direct control of the king. Teenage girls Way to Heaven Trials
Life in New England • Massachusetts General Court passed education laws. • Girls learned reading, writing, and some arithmetic. • Boys had more education opportunities. By the 1700s Harvard and Yale colleges were available to them. Education • By late 1700s most colonies were royal colonies. In town meetings church members and land owners voted on town matters. Government • Colonists became less dependent on the Indians for survival. The Native Americans now had guns. • Some Puritans felt it was their duty to drive the Native Americans out or kill them. • Land conflicts were behind the Pequot War and King Philip’s War. Both wars nearly wiped out the Native Americans involved. *control of LAND NativeAmericans
Standard Review SSUSH1 The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century. b. Describe the settlement of New England; include religious reasons, relations with Native Americans (e.g., King Phillip’s War), the establishment of town meetings and development of a legislature, religious tensions that led to the founding of Rhode Island, the half-way covenant, Salem Witch Trials, and the loss of the Massachusetts charter and the transition to a royal colony.
Possible EOCT Questions Which of the following groups founded Massachusetts? A. Puritans B. Quakers C. Anglican ministers D. tobacco farmers
Possible EOCT Questions Roger Williams, Anne Hutchinson, and Thomas Hooker all had which of the following in common? A. They left New England and spread Puritanism to the Middle and Southern Colonies. B. They founded other colonies in New England after leaving Massachusetts over disagreements with Puritan church leaders. C. They each played key roles in the Atlantic slave trade. D. They were each executed as witches during the Salem witch trials.
Possible EOCT Questions What colony did France found along the St. Lawrence River in 1608 for the purpose of establishing and protecting a successful fur trade? • Jamestown B. Quebec C. Plymouth D. New Orleans
Possible EOCT Questions The House of Burgesses was significant in the history of Virginia because it • Was the first place tobacco was sold. • Was where Powhatan & the leaders of Jamestown signed a historical treaty. • Was the first representative body of government in the British colonies. • Established Jamestown as an official colony.
The Middle and Southern Colonies • The Main Idea • Events in England during and after the English Civil War led to a new wave of colonization along the Atlantic coast south of New England. • Bonus Questions • What brought about a new era of colonization in America? • Why were new southern colonies founded? • Why did the Quakers settle Pennsylvania? • Why was Maryland founded?
A New Era of Colonization • After the English Civil War, the reign of Charles II was called the Restoration because it restored the English monarchy. • Charles repaid political favors by establishing proprietarycolonies, grants of land to loyal friends. Four new colonies were established: New York, New Jersey, Carolina, and Pennsylvania. • Colonies were governed by their Lords Proprietors.
A New Era of Colonization • The king granted the Duke of York land that included the area already claimed by the Dutch as New Netherland. Their town, NewAmsterdam, was thriving. • In 1664 an English fleet sailed into the harbor and demanded New Netherland’s surrender. Gov. Stuyvesant surrendered. • By 1674 New Netherland was firmly in English hands. • The duke renamed it New York*.
New York *Had a diversified population: English, Dutch, Scandinavians, Germans, French, Native Americans, and enslaved Africans Grew and prospered under English rule A treaty with the Iroquois protected the fur trade. The Duke of York gave the land south of the Hudson River to two of his political allies. They named it NewJersey. By early 1700s, New York and New Jersey became royal colonies. Puritans Flee to Freedom
The Carolinas Was co-owned by eight men Gave themselves large estates Some people had to pay to bring in boatloads of settlers. Southern Carolina Had a port in Charles Town Had prosperous estates of aristocrats Plantation owners from WestIndies moved there with their enslaved Africans. Northern Carolina settlers were small farmers without slaves. They did not have a good harbor. New Southern Colonies
New Southern Colonies • Georgia • JamesOglethorpe, humanitarian and member of English Parliament, wanted debtors to have a new start in life instead of going to prison. • He and 20 other trustees received a charter to settle Georgia. • In 1733 he founded city of Savannah, Georgia, with a boatload of colonists. • The trustees governed but did not own land or expect a profit. • Georgia’s population included former debtors, impoverished British craftspeople, religious refugees from Germany and Switzerland. • *By 1770 nearly half of the population was made of enslaved Africans.
Of all the Nonconformist groups, the Quakers upset people the most. They believed in direct, personal communication with God; they had no ministers or hierarchy of priests and bishops. They had simple meetings where their members rose to speak. They believed in the equality of all men and women. They were pacifists who refused to fight in wars. They were only welcomed in RhodeIsland. Quakers Settle Pennsylvania