The ancient Roman Empire spoke Latin from 100B.C.-400 A.D. They controlled what is modern-day France, Spain, and Portugal After the fall of the empire, Latin turned into French in France, Spanish in Spain, Portuguese in Portugal In the 1500’s A.D., Spain conquered the “new world” in South America They forced the people to learn Spanish, a language based on Latin Today, the areas where Spain, Portugal, and France (but mainly Spain) conquered is called “Latin” America
History - continued • The spoken languages are the result of the conquistadors. • Legacy of slavery – from 1600-1800 A.D. more African slaves were taken to Brazil - 3.6 million than to America – 650,000 • So Brazil’s population is highly diverse, with a large percentage of African Brazilians • 1800’s – Revolutions all over for independence against Spanish leaders took place • Today – most countries are democratic with lingering dictatorships
Page 204 Define: Conquistador – Spanish word for conqueror; (b) cultural convergence – merging of cultures What countries does France still own? France still owns French Guiana, Martinique, Guadeloupe
Page 206 Where would you expect to find tectonic plate boundaries in Latin America? Whenever a tectonic plate smashes into another one, usually a mountain range forms. So the west coast, where the Andes Mountain Range is, is the tectonic plate fault line. Based on the map, why do you think engineers would have chosen Panama for a canal? Because it is the narrowest point between the two continents and they wouldn’t have to dig as far.
Page 208 Define: tropical storm – storm with winds at least 39 mph; hurricanes – winds at least 74 mph, and in cyclone pattern; El Nino – ocean current in the Pacific Ocean that warms the cost of Peru and causes floods and droughts other places in the world. Name two cities of Latin America that lie within a tropical wet climate region. Bogota, Columbia and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Would you expect Bolivia to be more strongly affected by hurricanes or by El Nino? Probably El Nino because El Nino begins off the coast there and causes hurricanes in other parts of the world.
Page 212 Define: mestizo – native American and European descent; mulatto – European and African What are the four largest cities in Latin America? Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires, Mexico City. (b) Describe the relative location? Ex. Rio de Janeiro is south of Mexico city but North of Buenos Aires. How might the map look if Brazilians continue to migrate to urban areas? The East coast will become more populated.
Page 214 What effect might agricultural expansion have on rainforests? The rain forest will be cleared away to make more room for farms. Based on climate and topography, how would you explain the distribution of economic activities in Latin America? The people of the Amazon Basin are mainly subsistence farmers due to the poor soil and wet climate. Most manufacturing and trade takes place near the coast because of proximity to sea routes.
South America – 3 Regions • Northern Tropics - Characterized by warm tropical weather, rain forests, and coastal plains • Andean Countries - Characterized by coastal plains and highland mountains • Southern Grassland Countries - Many different characteristics with river system that connects them all
Ch 9 and 13 – Latin America • Regions • South America • Central America • Spanish speaking, Portuguese and French
Andean Countries • Countries – Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile • People – mestizos native Indian peoples • Economic Activities – vertical trade, farming, lumber industry, fishing, manufacturing
Northern Tropics • Economic activity depends on elevation – p. 270 • Countries – Guianas, Venezuela, Columbia • People – mulattoes and mestizos make up significant portion of population due to immigration and colonization • Economic Activities – OIL, sugar cane, rice, bauxite, coffee ---drugs.
Southern Grassland Countries • p. 207 • Estuary - rivers flow in an estuary and provide hydro-electric power to much of the countryside • Pampas and patagonia • Economic Activities – Patagonia has burgeoning electronics industry; cold weather prevents factories from needing air conditioning
Word SearchChapter 9 Latin America Define the following in your notebook: • Caudillos • Conquistadors • Pampas • Cays • Coral • El Nino
Answer these QuestionsDue at end of class • What is the major mountain chain in South America? • What is the primary land use? • What is the largest forest in South America? • Name the 2 climates and ecosystems that cover the largest land area. • Name the largest country in south America…in Central America.
News • BBC - Americas • CNN News
Ch 10. Sec. 2 Word Search • Land redistribution • Latifundios • Haciendas • Cash crops • Migrant workers
Questions • Where do the majority of Mexicans live? • What is the major mountain range in Mexico? • Does most of Mexico get a lot of rain? • What industry do the provinces located on the Gulf depend on?
Homework • Take notes on Chapter 11 Sec. 1
Pop Quiz – Open Note • Describe the type of terrain, or physical geography, that some of the Caribbean Islands have? • The Bahamas, a group of islands, are called this. (vocab term) • Islands that are flat are formed by what type of animal? • What climate do all of the islands have? • Name one country or ethnicity that many citizens of the Caribbean nations descended from?
Homework • Bring in one news item to share with the class. *News related to a South American country. *Hand written ( I don’t want to see the original article). *Cite news source (CNN, New York Times, local news, etc.) and story headline *At least 5 complete sentences
News from Latin America • Read the News Source, Date, and location of your news item before reading your article. • While the person is speaking, I will take notes on the board. WRITE THEM DOWN for the CNN News quiz on Friday. Speak loudly and clearly!
Take 8 minutes to study your class NOTES on Mexico and South America! (not vocabulary) • Take out a piece of paper • Write your name on it. • You will get 1 pt. of extra credit on your next test for each answer you get correct!
CNN/Notes News Quiz • Why is Latin America called Latin America? • What two European countries were the first to conquer that continent? • What is deforestation? • Why is deforestation bad? • What is the major economic activity in heavily forested areas? Hint: not logging. • What four cities in Latin America have the highest population densities? • What type of climate do the northern countries have? • Who are the mestizos? • What does mulatto mean? • During the slave trade of the 1700 and 1800s, to which country were more slaves taken than to America? • Describe to the best of your ability vertical trade and what that has to do with the Andes Mountains. • (Mon) What president of Venezuela gave president Obama a book about American domination in south America? • (Wed) What are the three R’s? • (Wed) The rainwater run-off of what chemical causes dead zones to occur in the Chesapeake Bay and in the Gulf of Mexico? • (Wed) Earth Day become a holiday in what year, 1 year after it was passed by Congress? • (Thurs) What is happening in Japan as a result of the recession? • (Thurs) What country has given up some Northwestern territory to the Taliban in the hopes that will satisfy them from advancing forward? 2 pt extra credit – 1 each: Name the other two European countries who established colonies in Latin America 100 years after the first ones.
Answer the following questions: • What is El Nino? P. 208 • Name the largest forest in S. America. p207 • Name the main Mexican mountain range. p207 • How were the flat Caribbean Islands formed? • Define the concept of land redistribution. • What industry do the provinces located on the Gulf depend on?
For the TEST • Know vocabulary we defined in class: mestizo, mulato, estuary, deforestation • Essay Q: deforestation • Study the map of South America!!!! Know where the countries are located!!!
Name one of the three regions of Latin America. • What is the major mountain range of South America? • Name one the two “mixed” ethnicity that make up the people living in Latin America and state their origins.
What country in Latin America is located the farthest south and has a “burgeoning” electronics industry? • How is land used lower at elevations versus the “highlands”? • What non-renewable resource is Venezuela rich in?
Name one of the two “mixed” ethnicities, that has not been named already, that makes up the people living in Latin America and state their origins. • What country speaks Portuguese as its main language?
Describe vertical trade. • Why do we call Latin America….Latin America?
What type of economy do the majority of South American countries have? Command or market?
What climate system primarily covers the northern part of South America? • What is one damaging effect deforestation has on South America?
How were the mountainous Caribbean Islands formed? • What are the three main languages of South America? • What is an estuary?
What major rivers feed the estuary grasslands in Southern Brazil? • What major events happened during the 1900’s all across Latin American countries?