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Colonizing America

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  1. Colonizing America

  2. Essential Question Summarize three points from the U.S. History syllabus.

  3. SSUSH1 The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century. •  a. Explain Virginia’s development; include the Virginia Company, tobacco cultivation, relationships with Native Americans such as Powhatan, development of the House of Burgesses, Bacon’s Rebellion, and the development of slavery.

  4. What were the original 13 colonies?

  5. The impact of Geography in the exploration of North America What they could produce and where because of geography cotton

  6. England Takes Interest in America • Protestant Reformation • Enclosure Movement • Rivalry with Spain

  7. In 1607, Jamestown, Virginia, became the first successful English colony in the New World.

  8. Jamestown Settlement • In April 1607, settlers sent by the Virginia Company in London entered Chesapeake Bay and founded Jamestown. • They faced many hardships. • For example, they found no gold nor did they establish the fish or fur trading expected of them by the Virginia Company investors. • The number of colonists dwindled.

  9. Essential Question Explain some of the hardships that the colonists faced in the first year of settling Jamestown.

  10. Jamestown Settlement(cont.) • Captain John Smith arrived in 1608 to govern the colonists. • The Virginia Company installed yet another leader to govern them after Smith. • A harsh winter and more trouble continued to plague the colonists.

  11. Jamestown Settlement(cont.) • When the colonists discovered how to grow tobacco, the colony began to prosper. • Relations with the Native Americans living nearby also improved when one of the colonists, John Rolfe, married Pocahontas, the daughter of Chief Powhatan.

  12. Pocahontas Not Her HER

  13. Jamestown Settlement(cont.) • The Virginia Company allowed a representative government in which ten towns in the colony each sent two representatives, or burgesses, to an assembly. • The assembly made local laws. • The House of Burgesses met for the first time on July 30, 1619.

  14. Essential Question • Explain what the House of Burgesses was.

  15. ) Indentured Servitude Institution (1607 - 1700) • Headright System: Plantation owners were given 50 acres for every indentured servant they sponsored to come to America. • Indentured Contract: Served plantation owner for 7 years as a laborer in return for passage to America. • Freedom Dues: Once servant completed his contract, he/she was freed….They often did not get voting rights.

  16. INDENTURED SERVANT vs. SLAVERY What factors led to the introduction of African slavery replacing indentured servitude as the labor force in the American Colonies?

  17. HOW SLAVERY CAME TO THE U.S. Indentured Servants Indentured servants became the first means to meet the need for labor. In return for free passage to Virginia, a laborer worked in the fields before being granted freedom. The Crown rewarded planters with 50 acres of land for every inhabitant they brought to the New World. Naturally, the colony began to expand. That expansion was soon challenged by the Native American confederacy formed and named after Powhatan

  18. Indentured Servitude Many indentured servants died before gaining their freedom. Of those that became free, less than half acquired their own land. They became tenant farmers, working land they rented from the planter elite. Those that acquired land often operated through subsistence farming.

  19. HOW SLAVERY CAME TO THE U.S. • Slavery has been practiced since the beginning of documented history. • Slavery introduced by the Spanish into the West Indies after Columbus’s discovery of America. • Spanish and Portuguese expanded African slavery into Central and South American after enslaved Indians began dying off. • In 1619, the first recorded introduction of African slaves into what would become the United States was in the settlement of Jamestown……Only 20 slaves were purchased…. Slaves captured in Africa Slaves aboard ship—Middle Passage

  20. BEGINNINGS OF SLAVERY This is called the Middle Passage

  21. Southern Society Society in the South became divided by the late 1600s. Wealthy landowners (Southern gentry) were at the top of the class structure while poor backcountry farmers (yeomen), landless tenant farmers, and servants were at the bottom. This uneven distribution of wealth led to rebellion.

  22. Bacon’s Rebellion(1676 - 1677) Nathaniel Bacon represents former indentured servants. GovernorWilliam Berkeley of Jamestown

  23. BACON'S REBELLION • Involved former indentured servants • Not accepted in Jamestown • Disenfranchised and unable to receive their land • Gov. Berkeley would not defend settlements from Indian attacks

  24. BACON'S REBELLION • Nathaniel Bacon acts as the representative for rebels • Gov. Berkeley refused to meet their conditions and erupts into a civil war. • Bacon dies, Gov. Berkeley puts down rebellion and several rebels are hung

  25. Consequences of Bacon’s Rebellion • Virginia’s government increased support for westward expansion, regardless of the impact on Native Americans. Land = peace • African slavery increased dramatically, replacing indentured servitude. • Enslaved workers did not have to be freed and would never need their own land. • Cheap land became available in other colonies, reducing the need for settlers to become indentured servants. • The English government adopted policies that encouraged slavery.

  26. African American Culture Grew in America as slaves attempted to “make the best” of their lives while living under the worst of circumstances. Slave communities were rich with music, dance, basket-weaving, and pottery-making. Enslaved Africans brought with them the arts and crafts skills of their various tribes as well as advanced farming techniques. Indeed, there could be a hundred slaves working on one farm and each slave might come from a different tribe and a different part of Africa.

  27. SSUSH1 The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century. • b. Describe the settlement of New England; include religious reasons, relations with Native Americans (e.g., King Phillip’s War), the establishment of town meetings and development of a legislature, religious tensions that led to the founding of Rhode Island, the half-way covenant, Salem Witch Trials, and the loss of the Massachusetts charter and the transition to a royal colony.

  28. Maryland • Catholics in England did not accept the King as the head of the Church. • Lord Baltimore founded Maryland. • Catholics wanted to practice their faith without persecution. • Proprietary colony: Lord Baltimore owned Maryland and could govern as he saw fit. • Most settlers were Protestant. • Official policy of religious toleration. • Tensions between Catholic minority and Protestant majority.

  29. Plymouth • Separatists: Puritans who broke away from the Anglican Church to form their own congregations. • Persecuted by the English government, fled to Holland, then to the New World. • Mayflower – Landed in Massachusetts • Squanto helped them survive.

  30. PURITANS • John Winthrop, founder of the Massachusetts Bay Colony • Middle class settlers, educated and organized • Successful as fur traders, fishermen and shipbuilders • Ruled as “Bible Commonwealth” or theocracy • New England Way = Puritan covenant with God • To establish holy society----”City upon a hill”

  31. PURITAN MIGRATION 1629 to 1640

  32. PURITANS • Pilgrims merge with the Puritans to form Massachusetts Bay Colony • Communities well organized • Established towns • Protestant Work Ethic • Family values

  33. New England • Massachusetts • New Hampshire • Rhode Island • Connecticut

  34. New England • good harbors • small farms and towns • trade centered around harbors • hilly, forested and shallow soil • cities: Boston • 15,000 – 1750 • fishing, lumber and trapping • Family, religion and community • Massachusetts • New Hampshire • Rhode Island • Connecticut

  35. Building the Bay Colony • Franchise (right to vote) extended to “freemen” – adult Puritan men of Congregational church (about 40% of men in the colony ~ higher percentage than in England) • Since idea of government was to enforce God’s laws, religious leaders (e.g. John Cotton) were very influential

  36. Building the Bay Colony • Puritan ideas: “calling” to God’s work, Protestant work ethic, limited worldly pleasures, fear of hell

  37. Trouble in Bible Colony(Puritan Rebels) Roger Williams • Roger Williams: • Extreme Separatist, denied right of civil government to govern religious behavior, challenged charter for illegally taking land from Indians • Avoided exile to England by fleeing to Rhode Island (Providence) where in 1636, aided by Indians, he started a colony in the Providence area • Started the first Baptist church • Allowed complete freedom of religion Separation of Church and State.

  38. Trouble in Bible Colony(Puritan Rebels) • Social harmony when only Puritans, but that didn’t last • Quakers: fines, floggings, banishments, executions • Anne Hutchinson: truly saved don’t need to obey (“antinomianism” the theological doctrine that by faith and God's grace a Christian is freed from all laws (including the moral standards of the culture) • Banished as a heretic. • Travels to Rhode Island with her children and helps organize this settlement

  39. New England Spreads Out • 1635: Hartford (Conn.) founded by Dutch/English settlers. Some Puritans moved westward to Connecticut with Rev. Thomas Hooker • 1639: Fundamental Orders – first written Constitution of the American colonies

  40. Half-Way Covenant • 1st generation’s Puritan zeal diluted over time • Problem of declining church membership • 1662: Half-Way Covenant – partial membership to those not yet converted (usually children/ grandchildren of members) • Eventually all welcomed to church, erased distinction of “elect”

  41. King Philip’s War • Colonial governments demanded that Native Americans follow English laws. • Plymouth colony executed three Wampanoag warriors for a murder. • Wampanoag warriors resp0nded by attacking the town of Swansea. • Wampanoag leader, Metacomet, was called King Philip by settlers.

  42. KING PHILIP'S WAR • Metacomet was killed. • Settlers won the war. • Few Native Americans remained in New England after the war.

  43. Essential Question • Who was Roger Williams and why is he important?