Warm-up Explain the differences between Capitalism and Communism, I will be collecting this along with your other warm-ups so it get it done.
Warm-up Define the following terms Cold War. Yalta Conference Potsdam Conference Iron Curtain Containment Domino Theory Truman Doctrine
Cold War: An era of competition and confrontation between The U.S. and the Soviet Union. 1946-1990 Essentially for U.S. It was about containing communism.
Yalta Conference After 1945 the Soviet Union and the U.S. try to rebuild Europe peacefully. The disagreement was over how to run the elections of the post war Poland and the Balkans The U.S. wanted free elections, The soviet Union wanted to institute a soviet sphere of influence.
Declaration of Liberated Europe After the Yalta Conference both Britain's and the U.S. declared that the countries being liberated should be allowed to decide on their own government. As well as elect their own leaders.
Potsdam Conference. 1946 Germany collapsed and Truman replaced FDR America wanted to industrialize Germany Russia wanted to make it agricultural based. Truman hinted at working Atomic bombe to force Russia to agree with industrialization of Germany after the war.
The Iron Curtain descends Stalin sensing what he felt to be a betrayal began to set-up a set of Soviet satellite states from the Adriatic to the Baltic sea. Germany which had been split into territories became the lynch pin France Britain and America began to unify their territories and spread free elections The Soviet pushed communism in the eastern block
Containment The idea of containment was greed upon by then secretary of stat George C. Marshall Dean Acheson, and George Kennan
George Kennan and the Long Telegram George Kennan was an ambassador to Moscow as tension began to sour. The long telegram refers to 5,540 word telegram that explained his view on the Soviet Union Kennan developed the idea of Containment which meant the U.S. needed to keep communism contained to the Soviet Union
Domino Theory The idea of containment was based around the Domino theory. Domino Theory: the idea that if communism could spread to the surrounding countries of USSR then it would eventually spread around the world. Essentially countries would fall to communism like dominos.
Atomic Conundrum The U.S. only increased tension with their original use of the Atomic bomb. It was originally kept a secret by the U.S. , Stalin only knew about the Manhattan project via espionage.
Truman Doctrine The first test of containment came with a request from Britain who had been supporting the Greek government in a civil war. He asked Congress for 400 million to try and free the area from the Soviet Union. This action would lead the Truman Doctrine, were the U.S. would provide aid to any country facing oppression or opposing communism. QUIET DISKEY
Protecting the World The U.S. would continue to implement policies in an attempt to protect against communism. Marshall plan: Developed by secretary of state George C. Marshall the plan donated money to rebuild war torn Europe and Japan. Originally was a gamble because the U.S. included Russia in those who would give aid.
NATO As the Soviet Union blockaded off Berlin from the countries were looking for some security from the U.S. NATO: stands for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Twelve countries who agreed to militarily support any country attacked. 1st it committed the U.S. to the defense of Europe 2nd The U.S. would honor this agreement, Dwight D. Eisenhower was put in charge.
Germany The decision came about to split Germany into four territories. France , Britain, America, and the Soviet Union each controlled a section The Soviet Union wanted Germany to pay reparations. Put the U.S. and the Soviot Union at the brink of war
Berlin Airlift To deal with the Soviet Union the U.S. merged their territories with their allies. The Soviet Union decided to cut ties with Western Germany, almost preparing for an invasion. The U.S. sent planes full of supplies to Western Germany to support them.
The Military Dimension The government was looking to unite its military during cold war build up. National Security Act: Established the department of defense. Headed by a civilian cabinet rank, presiding over the army, navy and air force. Also created the Central Intelligence Agency(CIA) As well as the nation security council Found great support in the fall of 1949 when the soviets explode their first atomic bomb.
The Chinese Revolution China formed a prominent communist party before world war II. Which was less active in order to stop the Japanese. When WWII ended the party restarted and began to gain strength. America provided the Chinese 2 billion dollars in aid to put down the Communists. Unfortunately the funds were misspent and China fell to Mao and communism.
The Korean War North Korea crosses over what is known as the 38th parallel. Brings the U.S. forces lead by Douglas MacArthur into action. U.S. and U.N. forces pushes the North Koreans to the border of China. China feeling threatened attacks and pushes U.S. forces back to South Korea.
Page 774 1.What was the red scare, what was the cause of it? 2. What does the term subversion mean? 3. What is the loyalty review program? Who started it? Was it successful? 4. What was the House Un-American activities committee? Who does it target? 5.Describe events that revolved around Alger Hiss and the Rosenberg's. 6.What is McCarthyism? Who did it target? How was it stopped? 7.What is the McCarran Act?
The Red Scare As the U.S. continues to try and stop the spread of Communism a spy defects on the Canadian border. Lead to the second Red Scare. The Search for spies increased greatly as the country began to fear a Communist subversion to weaken the U.S.
Loyalty Review The program existed to screen government employees, in a n attempt to weed out spies. Instead of calming Americans fears it only confirmed people fears of spies.
Un-American Activities The director of the FBI J Edgar Hoover was not pleased with the simple screening of employees. Hoover expanded the HUAC calling public hearings related to possible communists. The committee focused on the film industry many member of Hollywood testified against their friends and neighbors.
Alger Hiss Hiss served as a diplomat in the Roosevelt administration. Hiss was accused by a another member of the Truman Administration Whittaker Chambers of being communist Upon testifying Hiss lied under oath committing the crime of perjury when he stated that he did not know Chambers. This was to dodge te communist accusation Chambers had stored papers proving Hiss guilt in pumpkin patch.
The Rosenberg's Believed to be Communist spies the Rosenberg's sold government secrets to the Soviets. After hearing testimony by scientist that had sold secrets the Rosenberg's were arrested. Both of the Rosenbergs were condemned to death.
McCarthyism Joseph McCarthy was a senator that looking to fast track his career by taking advantage of the red scare. McCarthy became the head of the sub committee and built hearings based on flimsy evidence. This would damage the careers of possible opponents. The tactic was known as McCathyism
McCarran Act Known as the internal security act Made it illegal to conspire against the U.S. government. Required all communist parties to publish the names of their members. Any communist sympathizers could be arrested. It was named after Senator Pat McCarren
McCarthy goes too far Joseph McCarthy continued to accuse citizens of being communist to rise in power. McCarthy became less trusted though as he accused a close friend of President Eisenhower of being a communist. The president and congress ordered an investigation of McCarthy ending his reign of terror.
Fun Fact The play the crucible was meant to make a protest of McCarthyism, the play used the setting of the Salem Witch trail to hide it’s true message.
Eisenhower comes to power As Eisenhower entered the White House the Cold War was one of his Primary interests. He believed that the war would not be won not just by military build up, but also economic build up.
Massive Retaliation Eisenhower thought communism could not be contained with small battles. Instead he believed in threatening to use Nuclear Weapons. This was known as Massive retalation. There critics to this idea calling it brinksmanship due to putting the world on the brink of war.
The end of a war and control of a crisis By 1953 Eisenhower had decided to end the war in Korea, and signed a peace accord. As China fell to the Communist the new soviet country began talks to invade Taiwan. Eisenhower threatened to use nuclear weapons ending the crisis.
Covert Ops Brinksmanship worked in only some scenarios. Eisenhower decided to use the CIA or central Intelligence Agency to stop communism from growing in developing countries. Many of these countries wanted to become communist because of imperialism and capitalism.
Mutually Assured Destruction Eisenhower could no longer use Massive retaliation as the soviets developed a Nuclear Bomb. This lead to the U.S. being tied. Both of them new that use of nuclear of force against each other allies could lead to nuclear war. Nuclear war could end the war as well as the destruction of both countries.
Sputnik As Eisenhower had work on project overseas the Russians Launched the first satellite into space. The satellite was named Sputnik it terrified the American public. Part of it was a fear that the soviets were watching us. They believed that for the first time America had fallen behind in the cold war.
Peace time blitz • Post world war 2 even though the U.S. was fighting communism it is a great time of prosperity in the U.S. During this time the U.S. built the federal high ways TVs provided entertainment most families Rock and Roll began to surface.
military industrial complex As Eisenhower left the presidency he warned the American public that if citizens were not careful the country would always in be a state of war. This was due to the idea the weapons producers could always make a profit by keeping country moving from conflict to conflict. This was known as the military industrial complex.
The Election of 1960 The presidency changes drastically as the sixties began due to the innovation of television. It was estimated that 75 million watched the first ever televised debate. Both parties had spent 6 million dollars in radio and television adds.
Who do you love? Richard Millhouse Nixon John F. Kennedy Catholic Young ,wealthy War Hero From Massachusetts Quaker Vice President under Eisenhower From California Grew up with financial struggles
Up for Debate Portrayed himself as a cold warrior, who wanted to stop communism. Wanted to boost the economy Concerned with the missile gap, believed the U.S. lagged behind Russia in missile production Portrayed himself as a cold warrior, who wanted to stop communism. Wanted to boost the economy Believed Kennedy's plan would boost inflation Believed he was the only one with the foreign politics experience.
The result It was Kennedy’s optimism and charisma that won out leading to his election. Still the election was close as the country elected it’s youngest and first catholic President.
The New Frontier Upon entering the White House Kennedy proposed what would be known as the New Frontier He hoped to increase aid to education Provide health insurance Develop a department of Urban Affairs Win the space race
Successes Kennedy was able to strengthen the economy through deficit spending. Kennedy also focused on the rights of women with a Presidential commission. Eventually it would lead to the equal pay act.
The Warren Court Besides Kennedy’s attempt to change society the supreme court changed the U.S. society in their rulings. The most important dealt with what would be known as Due Process Due process: means the law cannot treat individuals unfairly.
JFK and Communism Kennedy worked to make the military more flexible. He made it easier for Latin America to receive aid and developed the peace corps. Kennedy felt the Eisenhower relied too much on Nuclear weapons. Kennedy instead increased funding to the special forces. The President pushed for a build up in troops and conventional weapons.
Bringing assistance In fighting Communism Kennedy focused on aid as much as military. 20 billion dollars was spent in an alliance with Latin America. The money went to developing schools , housing and health care.
Peace Corps Along with financial aid the President also developed programs to assist less fortunate countries. The most memorable being the Peace Corps. An organization that sent Americans to provide humanitarian services in less developed nations.
Space Race 1961 the Russian Cosmanaught Yuri Gagarin is the first person to orbit the earth. Kennedy mad it a goal of the country to land a man on the Moon by the end of the decade. July 16 1969 the Saturn V rocket launches and will land on the moon.