What is Memory? The Processes of encoding, storage & retrieval
What is Memory? • The encoding, storage and later retrieval of a response that was previously acquired. • The Learning Process is made up of Two Stages: Acquisition & Retention
Acquisition • Acquisition– The initial learning of information. • Affected by… • 1. Attention Process • 2. Degree of Motivation • 3. Preparedness of the Learner • 4. Type of Practice Followed • 5. Kind of Material to be Learned • 6. Transfer of Training (Application)
Situational Factors that Influence Acquisition Attention • Sensory Gating – process by which the brain sends messages to some of the sensory systems to decrease the amount of information they must deal with. • Example: Feeling of clothes, “white” noise • Parallel vs. Sequential Attention (parallel sensory processing) • Parallel – Useful only when receiving new info. Brain processes several different stimuli simultaneously. • Sequential Attention – Higher Level, treat each piece of info separately in order. o
Factors Influencing Attention • Feature Extraction (Decoding) – Sensory System selects which incoming stimuli to process then establishes meaning for these stimuli. • Example: “r” is different from “f” • Characteristics of the Learner: • Individual Differences: development, motivation, expression of emotions • Preparedness – Time & Place. Example: Chimps can’t speak but are prepared for signing. • The Learning Curve: Performance is not always an accurate indicator of learning.
Methods of Acquisition • 1. Overlearning – any repetition over the point of acquisition • Follows the law of diminishing returns – more is not always better. • 2. Knowledge of Results: Feedback – any info about the effect of a response. • Leads to faster acquisition of new material • Immediate feedback is more beneficial than delayed • 3. Distribution of Practice – Study - Rest - Study – Rest. (Take Breaks) • 4. Whole-Part Distribution – Deciding whether to learn the entire amount of material as a whole or divide it into parts to learn. Depends on the task. • 5. Active vs. Passive Approach – The more involved (active) you are in your learning the better you will remember it. • 6. Primacy & Recency Effects – Tend to remember info that came first and last. 7. Content – We are better able to remember info that we can make associations to and infer meaning from.
Information Processing Model • Encoding - getting information into the memory system • Storage - the retaining of encoded information over time • Retrieval - getting encoded information out of memory storage
How is Our Memory Like a Computer? • Both encode, store, and retrieve data • We can activate information from our long term memory (hard drives) • Information on the screen disappears if not used right away – short term memory
Serial Position Effect • The tendency to recall the first and last items in a list • Primacy effect – the ability to recall information near the beginning of a list • Recency effect – the ability to recall information near the end of a list
Primacy/Recency EffectorSerial Position Effect(From Craik & Watkins, 1973)
Spacing Effect • The tendency for distributed practice to yield better retention than is achieved through massed practice (cramming)
Distributed Practice • Spreading rehearsal out in several sessions separated by period of time • Usually enhances the recalling of the information
Massed Practice • Putting all rehearsal together in one long session (cramming) • Not as effective as distributed practice
Semantic Encoding • The encoding of meaning • Encoding information that is meaningful enhances recall
Self-Reference Effect • The enhanced semantic encoding of information that is personally relevant • Making information meaningful to a person by making it relevant to one’s life
Acoustic Encoding • Encoding information based on the sounds of the information
Visual Encoding • Encoding information based on the images of the information
Chunking • Organizing information into meaningful units • More information can be encoded if organized into meaningful chunks.
Mnemonic Device • A memory trick or technique for remembering specific facts • “Every good boy does fine” to remember the notes on the lines of the scale • “People say you could have odd lots of good years” as a way to remember how to spell “psychology”
Method of Loci • A mnemonic device in which the person associates items to be remembered with imaginary places
Peg-Word System • A mnemonic device in which the person associates items to remember with a list of peg words already memorized • Goal is to visualize the items to remember with the items on the pegs
Categorical Clustering • Grouping items you want to remember by categories • Example: Grocery list organized by aisles or food category.
Acronyms • Set of letters from a word or phrase in which each letter stands of a certain other word or concept. • Example: HOMES = Names of the Great Lakes
Acrostics • Initial letters that taken in order form a word or phrase that trigger what you want to remember. • Example: Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally (Math) • Example: Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge (Music)
Interactive Images • Link a set of isolated words by creating visual representations for the words and then picturing interactions among the items. • Example: If you had to remember a list of random things like an aardvark, pencil, table and book picture the aardvark sitting on a table holding pencil in its claws and writing in a book.
Keyword System • Learning isolated words by linking sounds and meanings together. • Example: Elvis shook his pelvis • Stalactite holds tight to the ceiling • Fibula lies beneath the Tibula • Tibula is on top of the fibula
Do Mnemonics Work? • Watch this 8 minute video on how the world’s best memory competitors use mnemonics.
Three Storage Systems • Three distinct storage systems : • Sensory Memory • Short-Term Memory (includes Working Memory) • Long-Term Memory
Sensory Memory • The brief, initial coding of sensory information in the memory system • Iconic store – visual information, ½ second • Echoic store – sound information, 2-3 seconds • Information held just long enough to make a decision on its importance
Short-Term Memory • Conscious, activated memory which holds information briefly before it is stored or forgotten • Holds approximately seven, plus or minus two, chunks of information • Can retain the information as long as it is rehearsed • Also called “working memory”
Long-Term Memory • The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system • Holds memories without conscious effort
Name the Seven Dwarves Take out a piece of paper
Retrieval • The process of getting information out of memory storage • Two forms of retrieval • Recall • Recognition