1 / 78

What is Memory?

What is Memory?. The Processes of encoding, storage & retrieval. What is Memory?. The encoding , storage and later retrieval of a response that was previously acquired. The Learning Process is made up of Two Stages: Acquisition & Retention. Acquisition.

Download Presentation

What is Memory?

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. What is Memory? The Processes of encoding, storage & retrieval

  2. What is Memory? • The encoding, storage and later retrieval of a response that was previously acquired. • The Learning Process is made up of Two Stages: Acquisition & Retention

  3. Acquisition • Acquisition– The initial learning of information. • Affected by… • 1.     Attention Process • 2.     Degree of Motivation • 3.     Preparedness of the Learner • 4.     Type of Practice Followed • 5.     Kind of Material to be Learned • 6.     Transfer of Training (Application)

  4. Situational Factors that Influence Acquisition Attention • Sensory Gating – process by which the brain sends messages to some of the sensory systems to decrease the amount of information they must deal with. • Example: Feeling of clothes, “white” noise • Parallel vs. Sequential Attention (parallel sensory processing) • Parallel – Useful only when receiving new info. Brain processes several different stimuli simultaneously. • Sequential Attention – Higher Level, treat each piece of info separately in order. o

  5. Factors Influencing Attention • Feature Extraction (Decoding) – Sensory System selects which incoming stimuli to process then establishes meaning for these stimuli. • Example: “r” is different from “f” • Characteristics of the Learner: • Individual Differences: development, motivation, expression of emotions • Preparedness – Time & Place. Example: Chimps can’t speak but are prepared for signing. • The Learning Curve: Performance is not always an accurate indicator of learning.

  6. Methods of Acquisition • 1. Overlearning – any repetition over the point of acquisition • Follows the law of diminishing returns – more is not always better. • 2.     Knowledge of Results: Feedback – any info about the effect of a response. • Leads to faster acquisition of new material • Immediate feedback is more beneficial than delayed • 3.     Distribution of Practice – Study - Rest - Study – Rest. (Take Breaks) • 4.     Whole-Part Distribution – Deciding whether to learn the entire amount of material as a whole or divide it into parts to learn. Depends on the task. • 5.     Active vs. Passive Approach – The more involved (active) you are in your learning the better you will remember it. • 6.     Primacy & Recency Effects – Tend to remember info that came first and last. 7. Content – We are better able to remember info that we can make associations to and infer meaning from.

  7. The Information-Processing Model

  8. Information Processing Model • Encoding - getting information into the memory system • Storage - the retaining of encoded information over time • Retrieval - getting encoded information out of memory storage

  9. How is Our Memory Like a Computer? • Both encode, store, and retrieve data • We can activate information from our long term memory (hard drives) • Information on the screen disappears if not used right away – short term memory

  10. Encoding:Serial Position Effect

  11. Serial Position Effect • The tendency to recall the first and last items in a list • Primacy effect – the ability to recall information near the beginning of a list • Recency effect – the ability to recall information near the end of a list

  12. Primacy/Recency EffectorSerial Position Effect(From Craik & Watkins, 1973)

  13. Encoding:Spacing Effect

  14. Spacing Effect • The tendency for distributed practice to yield better retention than is achieved through massed practice (cramming)

  15. Distributed Practice • Spreading rehearsal out in several sessions separated by period of time • Usually enhances the recalling of the information

  16. Massed Practice • Putting all rehearsal together in one long session (cramming) • Not as effective as distributed practice

  17. Encoding:Encoding Meaning

  18. Semantic Encoding • The encoding of meaning • Encoding information that is meaningful enhances recall

  19. Self-Reference Effect • The enhanced semantic encoding of information that is personally relevant • Making information meaningful to a person by making it relevant to one’s life

  20. Semantic Encoding(From Craik & Tulving, 1975)

  21. Acoustic Encoding • Encoding information based on the sounds of the information

  22. Acoustic Encoding(From Craik & Tulving, 1975)

  23. Visual Encoding • Encoding information based on the images of the information

  24. Visual Encoding(From Craik & Tulving, 1975)

  25. Encoding:Organizing Information

  26. Chunking • Organizing information into meaningful units • More information can be encoded if organized into meaningful chunks.

  27. Encoding:Mnemonic Devices

  28. Mnemonic Device • A memory trick or technique for remembering specific facts • “Every good boy does fine” to remember the notes on the lines of the scale • “People say you could have odd lots of good years” as a way to remember how to spell “psychology”

  29. Method of Loci • A mnemonic device in which the person associates items to be remembered with imaginary places

  30. Peg-Word System • A mnemonic device in which the person associates items to remember with a list of peg words already memorized • Goal is to visualize the items to remember with the items on the pegs

  31. Peg Word System

  32. Categorical Clustering • Grouping items you want to remember by categories • Example: Grocery list organized by aisles or food category.

  33. Acronyms • Set of letters from a word or phrase in which each letter stands of a certain other word or concept. • Example: HOMES = Names of the Great Lakes

  34. Acrostics • Initial letters that taken in order form a word or phrase that trigger what you want to remember. • Example: Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally (Math) • Example: Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge (Music)

  35. Interactive Images • Link a set of isolated words by creating visual representations for the words and then picturing interactions among the items. • Example: If you had to remember a list of random things like an aardvark, pencil, table and book picture the aardvark sitting on a table holding pencil in its claws and writing in a book.

  36. Keyword System • Learning isolated words by linking sounds and meanings together. • Example: Elvis shook his pelvis • Stalactite holds tight to the ceiling • Fibula lies beneath the Tibula • Tibula is on top of the fibula

  37. Do Mnemonics Work? • Watch this 8 minute video on how the world’s best memory competitors use mnemonics.

  38. Storage

  39. Three Storage Systems • Three distinct storage systems : • Sensory Memory • Short-Term Memory (includes Working Memory) • Long-Term Memory

  40. Storage:Sensory Memory

  41. Sensory Memory • The brief, initial coding of sensory information in the memory system • Iconic store – visual information, ½ second • Echoic store – sound information, 2-3 seconds • Information held just long enough to make a decision on its importance

  42. Storage:Short-Term Memory

  43. Short-Term Memory • Conscious, activated memory which holds information briefly before it is stored or forgotten • Holds approximately seven, plus or minus two, chunks of information • Can retain the information as long as it is rehearsed • Also called “working memory”

  44. Storage:Long-Term Memory

  45. Long-Term Memory • The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system • Holds memories without conscious effort

  46. Name the Seven Dwarves Take out a piece of paper

  47. Retrieval

  48. Retrieval • The process of getting information out of memory storage • Two forms of retrieval • Recall • Recognition

More Related