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You Are Your Memory. Your memory stores: Your personal experiences Emotions Preferences/dislikes Motor skills World knowledge Language Fundamentally, you as a person are derived from experiences that have been stored in your nervous system.

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you are your memory
You Are Your Memory

Your memory stores:

  • Your personal experiences
  • Emotions
  • Preferences/dislikes
  • Motor skills
  • World knowledge
  • Language

Fundamentally, you as a person are derived from experiences that have been stored in your nervous system.

This is possible only because your brain has developed the capacity to store information.

definition
Definition

“Learning is the process of acquiring new information, while memory refers to the persistence of learning in a state that can be revealed at a later time” (Squire, 1987).

historical foundations the golden age
Historical Foundations: The Golden Age

Théodule Ribot proposed that during disease of the brain, memories disappear in an orderly fashion

Ribot’s Law: Ribot also proposed that old memories are more resistant to disease/disruption than new memories.

historical foundations the golden age6
Historical Foundations: The Golden Age

Serge Korsakoff

Described the syndrome produced by alcohol now called Korsakoff’s Syndrome.

The syndrome is characterized by what we would now call anterograde amnesia—the inability to acquire new memories.

During the late stages there is also retrograde amnesia—the loss of memories acquired before the onset of the disease.

He also proposed that amnesia could be due to either storage failure or retrieval failure.

historical foundations the golden age7
Historical Foundations: The Golden Age

William James proposed that memories emerge in stages. An after image is supported by a very short-lasting trace, then replaced by the primary trace that also decays. Secondary memory is viewed as the reservoir of enduring memory trace that with an appropriate retrieval cue can be recalled.

historical foundations the golden age8
Historical Foundations: The Golden Age

Santiago Ramón y Cajal

The Neuron Doctrine: The idea that the brain is made up of discrete cells called nerve cells, each delimited by an external membrane.

The Synaptic Plasticity hypothesis: The idea that the strength of a synaptic connection can be modified by experience.

figure 1 8 pavlovian conditioning is widely used to study learning and memory in animals
Figure 1.8 Pavlovian conditioning is widely used to study learning and memory in animals
  • Ivan P. Pavlov
  • Developed the fundamental
  • methodology for studying
  • associative learning in animals.
historical foundations the golden age10
Historical Foundations: The Golden Age

Edward L. Thorndike

Developed the first methodology for studying how we learn about the consequences of our actions = Instrumental conditioning (Thorndikian conditioning)

The Law of Effect: The correct behavior was learned because the consequences of successful outcome (a satisfying state) strengthened connections between the stimulus (S) and correct response (R) and the consequence of unsuccessful responses (annoying state) weaken the competing and wrong S–R connections.

who was
WHO WAS…
  • Herman Ebbinghaus?
  • Theodule Ribot?
  • Serge Korsakoff?
  • William James?
  • Santiago Ramón y Cajal?
  • Ivan P. Pavlov?
  • Edward L. Thorndike?
definitions
DEFINITIONS
  • Declarative memory (explicit)
    • Knowledge to which we have conscious access, including personal and world knowledge
  • Nondeclarative memory (implicit)
    • Knowledge to which we typically have no concious access, such as motor and cognitive skills
slide14

DEFINITIONS

  • Episodic memory
    • Stored information about events in one’s life, including information about when they happened and what happened
  • Semantic memory
    • A category of memory that is believed to support memory for facts and the ability to extract generalizations across experiences
slide15

DEFINITIONS

  • Procedural memory
    • A form of non-declarative memory that involves the learning of a variety of motor skills and cognitive skills (e.g., how to ride a bike or how to read)
  • Perceptual representation system
    • A courier network that delivers sensory information to the CNS to control muscles of the body; anything outside the brain and spinal cord
types of memory
TYPES OF MEMORY

Type of memory Time course Capacity Conscious Awareness? Mechanisms of Loss

Sensory ms-s high no Primarily Decay

Short-term and working s-min limited yes Primarily Decay

Long-term nondeclarative days-years high no Primarily Interference

Long-term declarative days-years high yes Primarily Interference

*TABLE 8.1 page 314

p 314
p.314

W. W. Norton

slide18

Declarative or explicit memory is knowledge that

  • a. one can access consciously.
  • b. one cannot access consciously.
  • c. is a form of sensory memory.
  • d. is a form of short-term memory.
slide19

Declarative or explicit memory is knowledge that

  • a. one can access consciously.
  • b. one cannot access consciously.
  • c. is a form of sensory memory.
  • d. is a form of short-term memory.
slide20

Barbara remembers that Madrid is the capital of Spain, but she has no idea when or where she acquired this knowledge. Her ________ memory is accurate, but her ________ memory is incomplete.

  • a. semantic / episodic
  • b. nonassociative / semantic
  • c. episodic / implicit
  • d. explicit / implicit
slide21

Barbara remembers that Madrid is the capital of Spain, but she has no idea when or where she acquired this knowledge. Her ________ memory is accurate, but her ________ memory is incomplete.

  • a. semantic / episodic
  • b. nonassociative / semantic
  • c. episodic / implicit
  • d. explicit / implicit
08 01
08-01

W. W. Norton

08 02
08-02

W. W. Norton

08 04
08-04

W. W. Norton

08 05
08-05

THE ATKINSON AND SHRIFFINMODAL MODEL OF MEMORY

08 07
08-07

Baddeley, A., and Hitch, G., Working Memory, in Bower, G.H. (Ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Vol. 8. New York, Academic Press, 1974, pp. 47–89. Adapted by permission of the publisher.

slide27

________ is the process of acquiring new information, whereas ________ is the trace that results from this process and can be revealed at a later time.

  • a. Recall / recognition
  • b. Recognition / recall
  • c. Learning / memory
  • d. Memory / learning
slide28

________ is the process of acquiring new information, whereas ________ is the trace that results from this process and can be revealed at a later time.

  • a. Recall / recognition
  • b. Recognition / recall
  • c. Learning / memory
  • d. Memory / learning
slide29

___ refers to the processing of incoming information to be stored.

  • a. Retrieval
  • b. Recall
  • c. Encoding
  • d. Explicit memory
slide30

___ refers to the processing of incoming information to be stored.

  • a. Retrieval
  • b. Recall
  • c. Encoding
  • d. Explicit memory
slide31

The encoding of information to be stored involves two stages: ________, in which inputs in sensory buffers and sensory analysis stages are registered, and then ________, in which a stronger representation for storage is created.

  • a. consolidation / storage
  • b. storage / retrieval
  • c. retrieval / acquisition
  • d. acquisition / consolidation
slide32

The encoding of information to be stored involves two stages: ________, in which inputs in sensory buffers and sensory analysis stages are registered, and then ________, in which a stronger representation for storage is created.

  • a. consolidation / storage
  • b. storage / retrieval
  • c. retrieval / acquisition
  • d. acquisition / consolidation
slide33

Research using the mismatch field (MMF), which is the magnetic equivalent of the mismatch negativity (MMN), has suggested that auditory sensory memory has a duration of about

  • a. 10 milliseconds.
  • b. 100 milliseconds.
  • c. 1 second.
  • d. 10 seconds.
slide34

Research using the mismatch field (MMF), which is the magnetic equivalent of the mismatch negativity (MMN), has suggested that auditory sensory memory has a duration of about

  • a. 10 milliseconds.
  • b. 100 milliseconds.
  • c. 1 second.
  • d. 10 seconds.
slide35

According to the modal model of memory, information that is currently held within short-term memory originates from

  • a. sensory memory.
  • b. working memory.
  • c. both sensory and working memory.
  • d. neither sensory nor working memory.
slide36

According to the modal model of memory, information that is currently held within short-term memory originates from

  • a. sensory memory.
  • b. working memory.
  • c. both sensory and working memory.
  • d. neither sensory nor working memory.
slide37

Which of the following best describes the flow of information in the Atkinson and Shiffrin modal model of memory?

  • a. Short-term storage → long-term storage → sensory memory
  • b. Short-term storage → sensory memory → long-term storage
  • c. Sensory memory→short-term storage →long-term storage
  • d. Sensory memory→long-term storage →short-term storage
slide38

Which of the following best describes the flow of information in the Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) modal model of memory?

  • a. Short-term storage → long-term storage → sensory memory
  • b. Short-term storage → sensory memory → long-term storage
  • c. Sensory memory→short-term storage →long-term storage
  • d. Sensory memory→long-term storage →short-term storage
slide39

Which of the following statements concerning types of memory in the modal model of memory is FALSE?

  • a. At any moment, there is more information in sensory memory than in short-term memory.
  • b. Some contents of sensory memory are selected via attention and next processed in long-term memory.
  • c. Sensory memory has a briefer duration than short-term memory.
  • d. Long-term memory has a longer duration than sensory memory.
slide40

Which of the following statements concerning types of memory in the modal model of memory is FALSE?

  • a. At any moment, there is more information in sensory memory than in short-term memory.
  • b. Some contents of sensory memory are selected via attention and next processed in long-term memory.
  • c. Sensory memory has a briefer duration than short-term memory.
  • d. Long-term memory has a longer duration than sensory memory.
slide41

The term ________ refers to a limited-capacity store that not only retains information over the short term (maintenance) but also permits the performance of mental operations with the contents of this store (manipulation).

  • a. working memory
  • b. short-term memory
  • c. sensory memory
  • d. long-term memory
slide42

The term ________ refers to a limited-capacity store that not only retains information over the short term (maintenance) but also permits the performance of mental operations with the contents of this store (manipulation).

  • a. working memory
  • b. short-term memory
  • c. sensory memory
  • d. long-term memory
08 13
08-13

Fig. 6.1, Corkin et al., “H.M.’s medial temporal lobe lesion: Findings from magnetic resonance imaging,” The Journal of Neuroscience 17: 3964–3979, (1997). Adapted with permission of The Society for Neuroscience.

slide53
The Chemical Basis of LTP: Antagonizing NMDA receptors block the induction of LTP, not the expression of LTP
slide55
Figure 3.1 First messengers carry information between neurons; second messengers carry the signal into the neuron
slide66

Classical conditioning is an example of a specific type of ________ memory.

  • a. priming
  • b. semantic
  • c. episodic
  • d. nondeclarative
slide67

Classical conditioning is an example of a specific type of ________ memory.

  • a. priming
  • b. semantic
  • c. episodic
  • d. nondeclarative
slide68

________ does NOT affect behavior consciously and can be measured only indirectly.

  • a. Nondeclarative memory
  • b. Declarative memory
  • c. Episodic memory
  • d. Explicit memory
slide69

________ does NOT affect behavior consciously and can be measured only indirectly.

  • a. Nondeclarative memory
  • b. Declarative memory
  • c. Episodic memory
  • d. Explicit memory
slide70

________ is the improvement in processing a stimulus as the result of previously having been exposed to that stimulus.

  • a. Nonassociative learning
  • b. Procedural learning
  • c. Priming
  • d. Conditioning
slide71

________ is the improvement in processing a stimulus as the result of previously having been exposed to that stimulus.

  • a. Nonassociative learning
  • b. Procedural learning
  • c. Priming
  • d. Conditioning
slide72

Deficits in memory as a function of brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma are known collectively as

  • a. aphasia.
  • b. agnosia.
  • c. anomia.
  • d. amnesia.
slide73

Deficits in memory as a function of brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma are known collectively as

  • a. aphasia.
  • b. agnosia.
  • c. anomia.
  • d. amnesia.
slide74

A 1957 study of patients who had undergone removal of the medial temporal lobe for the treatment of epilepsy suggested that

  • a. the removal of either the right or the left medial temporal lobe results in profound amnesia.
  • b. greater amnesia is associated with the removal of the left medial temporal lobe.
  • c. greater amnesia is associated with the removal of the right medial temporal lobe.
  • d. profound amnesia is associated only with bilateral medial temporal lobe removal.
slide75

A 1957 study of patients who had undergone removal of the medial temporal lobe for the treatment of epilepsy suggested that

  • a. the removal of either the right or the left medial temporal lobe results in profound amnesia.
  • b. greater amnesia is associated with the removal of the left medial temporal lobe.
  • c. greater amnesia is associated with the removal of the right medial temporal lobe.
  • d. profound amnesia is associated only with bilateral medial temporal lobe removal.
slide76

Which of the following would be the MOST difficult for the famous Patient H.M. and other patients with medial temporal lobe removal?

  • a. Reading a string of numbers written on a piece of paper
  • b. Remembering a series of seven numbers for 20 seconds
  • c. Learning the words for numbers in a foreign language
  • d. Improving in the ability to write numbers with the nondominant hand
slide77

Which of the following would be the MOST difficult for the famous Patient H.M. and other patients with medial temporal lobe removal?

  • a. Reading a string of numbers written on a piece of paper
  • b. Remembering a series of seven numbers for 20 seconds
  • c. Learning the words for numbers in a foreign language
  • d. Improving in the ability to write numbers with the nondominant hand
slide78

Which brain structure is located in the medial temporal lobe and is of particular importance in the formation of new long-term memories?

  • a. The hypothalamus
  • b. The colliculus
  • c. The hippocampus
  • d. The caudate
slide79

Which brain structure is located in the medial temporal lobe and is of particular importance in the formation of new long-term memories?

  • a. The hypothalamus
  • b. The colliculus
  • c. The hippocampus
  • d. The caudate
slide80

How are the cognitive (memory) deficits suffered both by Patient H.M. and by people with Korsakoff’s syndrome similar?

  • a. Both suffer from severe retrograde amnesia but not anterograde amnesia.
  • b. Both suffer from severe anterograde amnesia that is limited to declarative memory.
  • c. Both suffer from severe working memory deficits.
  • d. Both suffer from brain damage related to severe epilepsy.
slide81

How are the cognitive (memory) deficits suffered both by Patient H.M. and by people with Korsakoff’s syndrome similar?

  • a. Both suffer from severe retrograde amnesia but not anterograde amnesia.
  • b. Both suffer from severe anterograde amnesia that is limited to declarative memory.
  • c. Both suffer from severe working memory deficits.
  • d. Both suffer from brain damage related to severe epilepsy.
slide82

It appears that the medial temporal lobes and the diencephalon are important in consolidating explicit long-term memories but are not themselves the storage sites for this knowledge because

  • a. most skills and habits acquired before injury of these structures will remain intact.
  • b. only priming and conditioning show signs of impairment following damage to these structures.
  • c. only nonassociative learning and priming show signs of impairment following damage to these structures.
  • d. most episodic and semantic memories acquired before injury of these structures will remain intact.
slide83

It appears that the medial temporal lobes and the diencephalon are important in consolidating explicit long-term memories but are not themselves the storage sites for this knowledge because

  • a. most skills and habits acquired before injury of these structures will remain intact.
  • b. only priming and conditioning show signs of impairment following damage to these structures.
  • c. only nonassociative learning and priming show signs of impairment following damage to these structures.
  • d. most episodic and semantic memories acquired before injury of these structures will remain intact.
slide84

Long-term potentiation does NOT occur unless the neurotransmitter ________ is present in the synapse to bind to postsynaptic NMDA receptors.

  • a. GABA
  • b. norepinephrine
  • c. serotonin
  • d. glutamate
slide85

Long-term potentiation does NOT occur unless the neurotransmitter ________ is present in the synapse to bind to postsynaptic NMDA receptors.

  • a. GABA
  • b. norepinephrine
  • c. serotonin
  • d. glutamate
slide86

Imagine that a new drug is discovered that acts by depleting the brain of free magnesium ions. How would this drug affect long-term potentiation (LTP)?

  • a. The amount of LTP would increase.
  • b. The amount of LTP would decrease.
  • c. The amount of LTP would not change.
  • d. The amount of LTP would first decrease, then increase.
slide87

Imagine that a new drug is discovered that acts by depleting the brain of free magnesium ions. How would this drug affect long-term potentiation (LTP)?

  • a. The amount of LTP would increase.
  • b. The amount of LTP would decrease.
  • c. The amount of LTP would not change.
  • d. The amount of LTP would first decrease, then increase.
slide88

Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the role of NMDA receptors in mediating LTP in the brain?

  • a. NMDA receptors are critical to inducing LTP but not to maintaining LTP.
  • b. NMDA receptors block LTP in the brain unless magnesium ions are present.
  • c. NMDA receptors are depolarized by the binding of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
  • d. NMDA receptors create LTP by transporting magnesium ions from outside the cell into the cell.
slide89

Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the role of NMDA receptors in mediating LTP in the brain?

  • a. NMDA receptors are critical to inducing LTP but not to maintaining LTP.
  • b. NMDA receptors block LTP in the brain unless magnesium ions are present.
  • c. NMDA receptors are depolarized by the binding of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
  • d. NMDA receptors create LTP by transporting magnesium ions from outside the cell into the cell.