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Warm Up. Set up Chapters 12 and 13 title page on page ………. Warm Up- Page 1. What motivates you to do well in school? 2. What motivates you to be a good friend? 3. What motivates you to eat? Conversion Disorder-

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warm up
Warm Up
  • Set up Chapters 12 and 13 title page on page ……….
  • Warm Up- Page
    • 1. What motivates you to do well in school?
    • 2. What motivates you to be a good friend?
    • 3. What motivates you to eat?
    • Conversion Disorder-
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cdsWEiarCag&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active
warm up1
Warm Up
  • Pick up all 4 sheets of paper
motivation guides behavior
Motivation Guides Behavior
  • Motivation: is a need or desire that serves to energize behavior.
  • Behavior is guided by both physiological and psychological needs/desires.
evolutionary motivators
Evolutionary Motivators
  • Instinct: inherited pattern of behavior that is unlearned. Most common in species outside of humans.
  • Ex: Imprinting
internal motivation
Internal Motivation
  • How do you know when it is time for a glass of water?
this feeling of thirstiness creates a drive
This Feeling of Thirstiness Creates a Drive
  • Drive: type of motivation that is experienced as an aroused state of psychological /physiological tension caused by some need. Ex: Sex Drive
  • Drives motivate us to do something.
  • The goal of our body according to some psychologists, is to ELIMINATE all drives so that we can experience homeostasis: a balanced or constant internal state that the body regulates.
      • Thermostat
drive reduction theory
Drive Reduction Theory
  • Drive Reduction Theory: idea that physiological needs create tension states (drives) which motivates organism to satisfy the need.
  • Ex: Thirstiness (physiological need) creates tension state (drive) which motivates you to get water.
  • After you drink, the drive is reduced and you are closer to homeostasis.
external incentives also influence motivation
External Incentives Also Influence Motivation
  • Incentives: a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior apart from “need” to reduce drives.
  • Ex: money, etc.
theory of optimal arousal
Theory of Optimal Arousal
  • Although our bodies try to reduce tension inducing arousal, organisms are often motivated by curiosity (not a physiological need) and seek out arousal which may help them gain access to information and resources.
  • Organisms want to avoid boredom.

Babies Explore their surroundings out of curiosity.

know components of abraham maslow s hierarchy of needs
Know Components of Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • -Physical Needs at bottoms must be met first.
  • -Psychological goals come after…ultimate goal is self actualization.
  • Satisfaction- indicate the degree to which you are satisfied that your needs have been met at each level
  • 1 totally unsatisfied to 6 totally satisfied
self test
Self Test
  • 1st- reverse numbers 2,5,6,8,9,11,13 and 14
      • ( 6=1,5=2,4=3,3=4,2=5,1=6)
  • 2nd- Add up all numbers (use reversed numbers)
  • Total Scores range from 15 to 90. Average score being a 60
think about it
Think about it……………..
  • Why do you eat? ( need at least 3 reasons)
physiology and hunger

Subject swallows

balloon, which

measures stomach


Subject presses

key each time

when hungry

Stomach contractions

Hunger pangs

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Time in minutes

Physiology and Hunger
  • Stomach contractions (hunger pangs) accompany our feelings of hunger.
body chemistry s influence on hunger
Body Chemistry’s Influence on Hunger
  • Glucose: blood sugar that provides energy to the body tissues.
  • When your glucose levels are LOW you will feel hungry, when glucose levels are HIGH you will feel full.
  • The hormone insulin is the primary regulator of glucose levels.
  • Without insulin the body does not effectively dispose of glucose and provide it as energy (diabetes).
neurotransmitters influence on hunger
Neurotransmitters Influence on Hunger
  • Like glucose, if the following neurotransmitters are at low levels you will feel hungry, and if they are at high levels you will feel full:
    • Norepinephrine
    • Dopamine
    • Serotonin
the brain and hunger
The Brain and Hunger
  • The hypothalamus is the main brain structure which monitors hunger along with other maintenance activities.
  • The lateral hypothalamus brings on hunger; if destroyed no interest in food/stimulation will do opposite.
  • The ventromedial hypothalamus depresses hunger; if destroyed animal will overeat/stimulation will do opposite.
think about it1
Think about it …………………
  • What causes some people to become obese?
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yDbocZ438f0&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active
brain chemical that affects hunger
Brain Chemical that Affects Hunger
  • Leptin: is a protein produced by bloated fat cells; when these levels rise the body tells you to stop eating and pursue some type of activity.
  • Mice Experiment
hunger hormones
Hunger Hormones
  • Insulin- controls blood glucose
  • Orexin- increases hunger
  • Ghrelin- “I’m hungry”
  • PYY- “I’m Not Hungry”
genetic influences on hunger weight
Genetic Influences on Hunger /Weight
  • Number of fat cells is determined by genetics to a certain extent.
  • Set Point: body’s ideal weight set by its “weight thermostat.”
  • When body falls below weight; hunger increases and a lowered metabolic rate continues.
  • Basal Metabolic Rate (metabolism): body’s resting rate of energy expenditure.
    • Some individuals’ metabolisms are much higher than others.
time s affect on hunger
Time’s Affect on Hunger
  • Memory of our last meal can also affect hunger along with our schedule of when we usually eat.
  • Amnesia Patients Example.
learning and hunger
Learning and Hunger
  • If good eating habits are positively reinforced and bad habits punished, children will often eat healthy.
  • People can also develop taste aversions due to certain associations. Ex: chemotherapy patients.
  • Modeling: modeling of healthy or poor eating habits can effect a child’s eating.
    • Ex: Lebron James drinks Sprite.
culture s influence on eating
Culture’s Influence on Eating
  • Although our preferences for sweet and salty foods are genetic and universal, our culture’s eating norms affect our specific eating habits.

Monkey Stew is a popular dish in some Eastern cultures.

This steak would seem repulsive to eat to most Hindus.

culture s influence on eating disorders
Culture’s Influence on Eating (disorders)
  • Many argue the impossible standards of beauty put out by popular culture has lead to an increase in eating disorders:
  • Anorexia Nervosa: eating disorder in which a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet still feels fat and starves themselves.
  • Bulimia Nervosa: an eating disorder usually characterized by excessive eating followed by vomiting.
  • Binge Eating Disorder-
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VS2mfWDryPE&feature=fvw
women s distorted ideals of body image
Women’s Distorted Ideals of Body Image







body image

What women

believed men


What men



quick write
Quick Write
  • Discuss the various physiological and psychological factors that are involved in appetite regulation. Pgs 459-497
  • You MUST use specific info. At least 5 vocab terms. Underline the terms.