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Chapter 1. Introduction to hospitality marketing. Lecture plan. What is Marketing? Definitions Hierarchy of customer value Marketing Concept Management Orientations Environmental Influences Macro Micro Special Characteristics of Services Marketing Hospitality Marketing Mix.

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Chapter 1

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Chapter 1

Introduction to hospitality marketing

lecture plan
Lecture plan
  • What is Marketing?
  • Definitions
  • Hierarchy of customer value
  • Marketing Concept
  • Management Orientations
  • Environmental Influences
    • Macro
    • Micro
  • Special Characteristics of Services Marketing
  • Hospitality Marketing Mix
definitions of marketing
Definitions of marketing

Many different definitions of marketing

  • business philosophy to create and retain satisfied customers
  • exchange process – short term transactional marketing
  • relationship marketing - development of mutually beneficial long-term relationships between suppliers and customers
  • creating memorable experiences
the marketing concept
The marketing concept

Marketing is:

  • a business philosophy with the customer at the center of a hospitality organization’s purpose
  • an exchange activity between hospitality organizations and their customers
  • a management process that focuses on planning for the future success of the organization
  • a set of marketing tools, which marketers use to understand customers’ needs and wants and to develop products, and services to satisfy or delight customers

The central purpose of marketing is to manage demand

management orientations
Management orientations
  • Product or service orientation
  • Operations or production orientation
  • Selling orientation
  • Marketing orientation
  • Societal marketing orientation

Figure 1.3 Macro- and micro-environmental

influences on hospitality organizations

macro environmental influences
Macro-environmental influences
  • The macro-environment
    • Political
    • Economic
    • Socio-cultural
    • Technological
    • Environmental
  • Interaction of PESTE factors
impact of macro environment
Impact of macro-environment
  • Hospitality companies have limited control over PESTE influences; but major changes in even one PESTE factor can significantly impact on the business, either for better or worse
  • PESTE factors are constantly changing
business cycle
Business cycle
  • Growth: Occupancy and room rates increase in response to growing demand
  • Peak: Occupancy and room rates remain strong, funds still available for investment; growth tends to slow
  • Decline: Occupancy begins to decrease
  • Trough: There is a large imbalance of supply and demand during a recession; hospitality businesses fail
  • Resurgence: There is a gradual resurgence, and the cycle starts all over again
micro environment
  • internal company factors
    • customers
    • employees
    • Suppliers
    • Intermediaries
  • external factors
    • direct competitors
    • various publics
micro environment15

Hospitality companies have more influence over the micro-environment than over the macro-environment

special characteristics of services marketing
Special characteristics of services marketing
  • seasonality
  • intangibility
  • Perishability
  • Inseparability
  • Variability
  • Interdependence
  • supply
  • exceeding demand
  • high fixed costs
hospitality marketing mix
Hospitality marketing mix
  • The term marketing mix is used to describe the tools that the marketer uses to influence demand
  • The marketing mix is a core concept in marketing
  • The hospitality marketing mix adopted in this text is

based on the eight marketing activities

jobs in hospitality marketing
Jobs in hospitality marketing
  • People who work in marketing work in:
    • online and offline advertising, sales promotion and publicity
    • sales, sales promotion, print and publicity, direct mail, advertising,
    • public relations and customer relations
    • marketing research
    • online sales and marketing roles such as guest user interface (GUI) management, web product development, website sales, search engine optimization
    • database management, daily web operations and content management
references and further reading
References and further reading
  • Albrecht, K. (1992). The only thing that matters. Harper Business Books.
  • American Marketing Association. (October 2007). http://www.marketingpower.


  • Brown, S. (2001). Marketing: The retro revolution. Sage.
  • Carlzon, J. (1987). Moments of truth. Ballinger Publishing.
  • Chartered Institute of Marketing (2007). Shape the Agenda: Tomorrow’s word,
  • re-evaluating the role of marketing, October 2007.
  • Grönroos, C. (1994). From marketing mix to relationship marketing: towards a

paradigm shift in marketing. Management Decision, 32, 4–20.

  • Kotler, P. (1999). Kotler on marketing. Simon and Schuster.
  • Kotler, P. (2003). Marketing management. Prentice Hall.
  • Kotler, P., & Armstrong, G. (2010). Principles of marketing. Pearson Education.
  • Kotler, P., Bowen, J., & Makens, J. (2009). Marketing for hospitality and

Tourism (5th ed.). Prentice Hall.

  • Levitt, T. (1960). Marketing myopia. Harvard Business Review, 38, 45–56.
  • Pine, J., & Gilmore, J. H. (1999). The experience economy. Harvard Business
  • School Press.