Motivation An Introduction to Applied Linguistics (2nd Edition) Edited by Norbert Schmitt Chapter 10 ~ part 2
Call for motivation • After considering the important role of learning styles and strategies in language acquisition, motivation (as a third factor relating to the language learner) needs special attention. • Almost for every kind of behavior there would be a need or reason... even for learning a new language!
Call for motivation • Motivation needed for L2 learning is very different to any other type of motivation for learning other subjects. Why is that? • This is because an L2 learner involves in TL and TC far more than simply learning skills, or a system of rules, or a grammar. • Language learning has a significant impact on the social nature of the learner. (Williams , 1994:77)
Call for motivation • A second important aspect of L2 motivation is that it is not stable and static but is rather in a continuous process of change. • Dorneyei (2005) argues that motivation undergoes a cycle that has three cycles: • Choice motivation : generation • Executive motivation: maintenance • Retrospective evaluation: evaluation
Call for motivation • Bearing this (the cycle) in mind, for each stage there would be different motives. • Let us put ourselves in a psychologist’s shoes and see: • How’s motivation generated? • How’s motivation maintained? • How’s motivation evaluated?
Choice motivation • For generating motivation, the most important components are values and attitudes related to the L2, the L2 speakers and language learning in general. • For Gardner (1985) understanding the broad sociocultural nature of L2 motivation should be emphasized. • Gardner’s (1985) theory of influential motivation: • Integrative orientation • Instrumental orientation • Integrative motive
Choice motivation • Another important aspect of choice motivation is expectancy of success. • It refers to learner’s confidence in being able to carry out tasks associated with L2 learning.
Executive motivation • In Learning in classroom settings where distracting influences, such as off-task thoughts, anxiety or physical conditions make it difficult to complete the tasks, a particular motivation is needed. • Perceives quality of the learning experience. • “Autonomy” (self determination) • Motivational retrospection : To look back and evaluate
The retrospective stage • One very important function of this stage is for learners to extend the repertoire of personally useful strategies (as a source of inspiration for future learning).
Motivating learners • Dorneyei (2005) uses the three stages of choice motivation, executive motivation, and motivational retrospection as an organizing framework and identifies 4 principal aspects for teachers to motivate learners: • Supply the prerequisites and basic motivational conditions • Keep your feet on the ground! • Help learners generate their initial motivation • Create learner autonomy and help them keep going • Provide inspiring feedback and encourage positive retrospective self-evaluation
Pedagogical implications • Assuming that styles, strategies and motivation are inter-related and very closely linked. • Using style and strategy surveys in the classroom. • Learner self-motivating strategies • Commitment control • Meta-cognitive control • Satiation control • Emotion control • Environmental control