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Clauses

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  1. Clauses

  2. What to consider when deciding if a subordinate clause is anadjective, adverb, or noun:

  3. Step 1:If you remove the subordinate clause, do you still have a complete main clause?If so … it’s not a noun!

  4. Step 2:Once you’ve determined that it’s not a noun, look at the location of the clause:If it’s at the beginning of the sentence , it can’t be an adjective since adjectives have to follow the noun (pronoun) that they modify.

  5. Step 3:Once you’ve determined that it’s not a noun, look at the location of the clause:If it’s at in the middle of the sentence , there’s a strong possibility that it’s an adjective since adjectives have to follow the noun (pronoun) that they modify.

  6. Step 4:Once you’ve determined that it’s not a noun, ask yourself:“Can I switch it around?”Adjective’s can’t move away from the noun they modify.Adverbs (in most cases) can be moved to a different location in the sentence.

  7. Step 5:If you’ve determined that the clause is a NOUN, there will be something important missing from the main clause!Look at the LOCATION of the clause in the sentence:

  8. Step 6:If you’ve determined that the clause is a NOUN and it’s at the beginning of the sentence (preceding a verb)it’s probably functioning as the subject of the main clause.

  9. Step 7:If you’ve determined that the clause is a NOUN and it’s after the verb,check to see what kind of verb it is:Action = Direct objectLinking = Predicate nominative

  10. Step 8:If you’ve determined that the clause is a NOUN,check to see if it’s preceded by a preposition. If so, it may be the object of a preposition.

  11. How to choose the correct sentence type:

  12. Jan went shopping and left her credit card at home.(simple = one simple sentence with compound predicate)Jan went shopping, and she left her credit card at home.(compound = two simple sentences)Jan went shopping and discoveredthat she left her credit card at home.(complex = one main clause + one subordinate clause)Jan went shopping, and she discoveredthat she left her credit card at home.(compound-complex = two main clauses + (at least) one subordinate clause )Main clauseSubordinate clause

  13. Step one:Ask yourself if you are looking at one sentenceor two sentencesYou will automatically eliminate two of the four choices.

  14. Step two:If you know you have onlyone sentence … your choices aresimple (no subordinate clause present)or complex(subordinate clause present)Look to see if you have a subordinate clause!

  15. Step three:If you know you have two sentences… your choices arecompound (no subordinate clause present)orcompound-complex(subordinate clause present)Look to see if you have a subordinate clause!

  16. No Subordinate Clause Contains a subordinate clause One sentence S CX Two sentences CD CC

  17. Restrictive (or essential) adjective clause: Is a clause that is essential to the meaning of a sentence. The clause is needed for the sense of the sentence. If a restrictive clause is dropped out of the sentence, the meaning changes. Read the sentence without it to decide. Example: Terry Reese is the player who scored the most points. Terry Reese is the player. (The clause cannot be dropped without changing the meaning.)

  18. Nonrestrictive (or nonessential) adjective clause: Is a clause that merely adds an idea to the sentence. The sentence would be complete, and the meaning would be clear without it. Read the sentence without it to decide. Example: Terry Reese, who is the center for the Wildcats, scored the most points. Terry Reese scored the most points. (The clause can be dropped from the sentence.)

  19. Examples of Restrictive Clauses: Janice is the girl who found the money. (The clause tells which girl.) This is the book that has the map. (The clause tells which book.)

  20. Examples of Nonrestrictive Clauses: Janice, who is very alert, found the money. (Janice found the money. The clause is not needed.) This book, which has pictures, is my choice. (This book is my choice. The clause is not needed.)