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Warm Up. What people did you find most interesting from the presentations given yesterday and why? What is the entire premise or theme of the song We Didn’t Start the Fire thus far? What events did you find most interesting from the presentations given yesterday and why?. Warm Up.

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warm up
Warm Up
  • What people did you find most interesting from the presentations given yesterday and why?
  • What is the entire premise or theme of the song We Didn’t Start the Fire thus far?
  • What events did you find most interesting from the presentations given yesterday and why?
warm up1
Warm Up
  • How is Islam similar to Christianity?
  • How is Islam similar to Confucianism?
  • What is the importance of the Umayyad Caliphate and where was it located?
  • What is the importance of the Abassid Caliphate and where was it located?
  • How was Islam spread?
  • Why did Islam unsuccessfully spread in India?
dar al islam house of islam
Dar al-Islam: House of Islam
  • Mecca
    • Bedouins, commercial center, Ka’aba, polytheistic
      • Substantial profit
  • Muhammad
    • Orphan merchant marries wealthy businesswoman
    • Revelations from archangel Gabriel about “Allah”
  • Mecca merchants fear lack of profit from pilgrimages
    • Monotheism
  • Hijrah
    • Mecca to Medina
    • Umma: programs for life
      • Orphans, widows, military, etc.
  • 629 pilgrammage to Mecca
    • Visit Ka’aba, conquered city, 632 hajj again.
  • Islam=Submission
  • Muslim=one who submits
  • Prophet as well as Abraham, Moses, and Jesus.
  • 632 Muhammad dies w/o successor
  • Five Pillars
    • Faith: Only Allah, Prayer: 5 times facing Mecca, Fasting: dawn to dusk during Ramadan (revelation month), Alms-giving: Zakat, Hajj: Trip to Mecca
  • First Caliph (successor to prophet) Abu-Bakr
    • Next caliph assassinated (Umayyad), so Ali Muhammad’s cousin appointed caliph
      • Shia sect: Member of Muhammad family should be Caliph
      • Sunni sect: (largest now) successor chosen from the umma (Muslim community)
  • Early Expansion of Islam
    • Military conquest
    • Arabian Peninsula
    • Persia
    • 7th century = Syria, Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt
    • Central Asia vs. Buddhism
    • 8th century= North Africa, Spain/Portugal, and NW India
  • Unconcerned with religious beliefs more with power for leaders/people
dar al islam house of islam1
Dar al-Islam: House of Islam
    • Indian system of numbers
      • Arabic numerals
    • Algebra, Geometry, Trig
    • Astrolabe (pos. of stars)
    • Optic surgery/anatomy
    • Astronomy (map of stars)
    • Cartographers (detailed maps)
    • Urban centers increase
    • Education institutions increase
    • Arts, writing, calligraphy
    • Minarets (towers for prayer), mosques (places of worship)
    • Arabian Nights, literature/poetry
    • Sufi’s: Mystics focused on emotional union with Allah
  • Never address succession, levy high taxes = leaders unpopular
  • Independent kingdoms arose = Persia with Sultans
    • Baghdad in 945 along with Seljuk Turks adopt Sunni
    • Turks contol Baghdad in 11th century
  • Seljuk takeover of Jerusalem prompts Crusades in 1095.
  • 13th century Mongols execute Abbasid Caliph
  • Umayyad Caliphate made capital at Damascus, Syria
    • Arabic ethnicity over adherence to Islam
    • Inferior status to converts
    • “People of the Book” J/C would pay taxes for charity/property.
      • Worship/self-rule
    • Ruling families luxury
      • Gen. pop = revolt
  • Overthrown by Abbasid in 750
    • One escapes to Spain
    • Caliphate of Cordoba
  • Abbasid Caliphate supported by Shia make capital at Baghdad
  • Equal Status to converts
    • Advanced education/career
    • Trade W Med. To China
    • Ancient Greeks, Romans, Persians, logic of Aristotle preserved
    • Advanced education/career
    • Trade W Med. To China
    • Ancient Greeks, Romans, Persians, logic of Aristotle preserved
    • Advanced education/career
    • Trade W Med. To China
    • Ancient Greeks, Romans, Persians, logic of Aristotle preserved
dar al islam house of islam2
Dar al-Islam: House of Islam
  • Al-Andalus= Islamic Spain
    • Allies of Umayyad dynasty
  • Caliphs wanted to preserve Greco-Roman culture
    • Science and Math of Muslims
  • Caliphate of Cordoba
    • Library, free education, interregional commerce thrives, alcohol, algebra, and sofa added to Spanish vocab.
  • Islam in India
    • Delhi Sultanate
      • Military conquests unsuccessful due to monotheistic beliefs
    • Hindu lower castes/untouchables accept
  • Islam in SE Asia
    • Commercial contacts/conversion
    • Malaysia, Indonesia, and South Philippines
  • Islam in Africa: Spirit of Jihad (holy war)
    • Caravan routes spread
    • Like concept of unification of secular and spiritual powers in a caliph
    • Egypt, Ghana, Mali
    • Blend of local polytheism and Muslim
      • Sudan due to matrilineal structure
  • Indian Ocean Trade
    • East Africa
    • Ibn Batutta
      • Mogadishu, Mombasa, Kilwa
  • Accepted by rulers then people
  • Women hesitant to accept due to loss of freedoms
  • Mamluk Dynasty in Egypt
    • Strict adherence to Islam
    • Safe trade routes prospered
    • Fell to Ottoman Turks in 16th century
dar al islam house of islam3
Dar al-Islam: House of Islam
  • Role of Women
    • Big change from Muhammad to 15th century
      • Not required to wear veil and be secluded (Abbasid court)
      • Stems from interaction/diffusion of Middle Eastern women
  • Men followed example of Muhammad
    • Four wives so long as could provide/treat equally
    • Women get one
  • Both equal before Allah, female infanticide was forbidden, could own property, initiate divorce and allowed to remarry (if husband initiates divorce).
  • Seclusion to keep away from gaze of men
  • Created barriers to accept Islam
  • Quran established a patriarchal society
  • Slavery
    • Could not enslave another Muslim
    • Except POW’s
    • Not hereditary
    • Free slaves if they convert
    • Born of a slave woman and Muslim man
      • FREE
  • Summary
    • Islam unifies Asia, Europe, and Africa.
    • Preserves Mediterranean Classical culture and blends
    • Educational opportunities were extended
    • Urban centers created
    • Eastern Hemisphere profoundly impacted
the expansion of china
The Expansion of China
  • Tang Dynasty: Central Asia to Afghanistan
    • Tibet, Manchuria, S Vietnam
    • Bureaucracy of scholar-gentry and Confucian gov’t
    • Civil Service Exam strengthened
  • Buddhism rises with elite/peasants
    • Empress Wu
    • Art, sculpture, monasteries
    • Tax exemptions, private gifts of property increases wealth/power
    • Tang rulers fearful start restricting
    • Confucianism rises again
  • Decline
    • Internal rebellion
    • Invasions of nomadic peoples
  • Achievements of Tang
    • Trade/travel on silk roads protected
    • Contacts with Islam increase
    • Ocean-going ships improve/interest sparks
    • Chinese junks leading ship, dominated trade in Indian Ocean
    • Paper money
    • Letters of credit, or flying money, facilitated long distance trade
    • Urban areas grew in size
    • Increases canals/irrigation
      • Foundation for Grand Canal
    • Land redistribution
    • Gunpowder
    • Short stories/poetry
    • Tea and fast growing rice imported from Vietnam
    • Pop growth from rice better than millet
the expansion of china1
The Expansion of China
  • Song Dynasty
  • Couldn’t control Khitan (N nomads)
    • Paid tribute for 300yrs.
  • Traditions strengthened:
    • Civil Service Exam prerequisite for gov’t posts
    • Greater prestige for scholar-gentry
    • Neo-Confucianism: Blend of Buddhist/Confucian values
      • Respect for authority/family to everyday life of all levels of Chinese society
      • Elites to withdraw from contact with others
      • Reinforced gender/class distinctions
  • Scholar gentry over Military
    • Tribute to Khitan killed economy/peasants
  • Jurchens overthrow Khitan
    • Take over Yellow River
    • Push Song south
  • Achievements:
    • Overseas trade began
    • Artists created landscape paintings
    • Catapults hurled bombs/grenades
    • Flame throwers/rocket launchers
    • Printing with movable type
    • Compasses
    • Abacus developed to aid in counting/taxes
    • Foot binding spread among elite
    • Patriarchal family intensified
  • Chinese culture increases through the East
  • Japan, Chinese, Vietnam, and Korea made contacts with China
china s influence in japan
China’s Influence in Japan
  • Mimic form of Chinese bureaucracy
    • Blend of Confucian thought and written characters
    • Buddhism mixed with Shinto
      • Revered spirits of nature/ancestors
    • Aristocrats rebel
  • Local lords increase power
    • Tiny kingdoms protected by fortresses
  • Bushi led small states and maintained military
    • Samurai: serve Bushi and capital to protect emperor from bandits
      • Bushido
      • Seppuku: disembowelment
  • Moved towards feudalism
    • Serfs: Japanese peasants bound to the land
  • Gempei Wars: Peasants Vs. Samurai – 12th
    • Destroyed countryside
    • Minamoto family rises establishes the Bakufu
  • Military government
    • Still had emperor/court but power with Minamoto family and Samurai’s
      • Distanced from Confucian ways
  • The shogunate
    • Jap families who controlled military leaders
    • Civil disorder in 14th century allowed Bushi vassals to acquire land
      • Divided to Samurai’s
    • Provide loyalty and military assistance when needed
  • Daimyo
    • Warlord who ruled tiny kingdom
    • Some were centralized
      • Taxes collected to fund public projects
      • Trade between villages blossomed to long distance trade with China
  • Achievements
    • Merchant/artisan guilds
    • Common currency
    • Tea ceremony/decorative gardens
chinese influence on korea
Chinese influence on Korea
  • Han Dynasty migrants
    • Buddhism, writing, metallurgy, agriculture, Confucian classics
  • Tang rulers defeat resisting Koreans
    • Silla Kingdom resists made vassals of Chinese
      • Paid Tribute
  • Silla unites Korea
    • Studies Chinese customs
    • Kowtow (bow to emp.)
  • Chinese Civil Service Exam
  • Paid tributes to use Chinese trade network and educational systems
    • Connects Vietnamese, Japanese, etc.
  • Cultural and commercial opportunities expand
    • Buddhism rises with elites
    • Porcelain techniques from China
    • Celadon bowls produced
  • Mongol invasions interfere contacts with Korea/China
  • After 1392 contacts restored
chinese impact on vietnam
Chinese impact on Vietnam
  • Valued independence while admiring tech/polit. Advances of China
  • Qin traded with Vietnamese, but Viets began to control and intermarry Cambodians and other in SE Asia
  • Vietnamese has different language, lived in villages, society based off nuclear family
  • Women enjoyed more privileges
  • Buddhism hugely popular
  • Han tried to get S. China but Vietnamese opposed
  • Han conquers Vietnamese
    • Adopt Chinese agric., irrigation, Confucian veneration of ancestors, extended family structure
    • Staged rebellions
  • Fall of Tang = major protest winning Viets their independence
    • Continue civil service exam
  • Conquer neighboring peoples due to military organization/tech. adopted from Chinese
chapter 13 in 5 steps to a 5
Chapter 13 in 5 steps to a 5
  • READ on your own
  • Pages 124-128
  • European Middle Ages
  • Crusades
  • European Feudalism
interregional trade and exchange the mongols
Interregional Trade and Exchange: The Mongols
  • Pastoral Nomads from steppes of Central Asia
    • Horseman who trade livestock for crops
    • Tribe, unite to confederations.
    • Steppe diplomacy: alliances eliminating rivals
  • Temujin: Creates confederations based on loyalty
    • Renamed Ghengis Khan (ultimate ruler)
  • Military: Horsemanship
    • Shortbow, catapult, gunpowder, cannons, flaming arrows, battering rams, etc.
  • Khan extends power from China to Persia
    • Tribute collectors, tolerant of culture/religion of conquered, assimilate.
  • Mongols in Russia
    • Tartars in Russian invade in winter
      • Resisting cities massacred or sold into slavery
      • Kiev burned to ground
    • Tribute Empire: Golden Horde
    • Serfdom-peasant gave up lands to rich for protection from Mongols
    • Moscow: Tribute collection center, princes take lands who can’t pay
    • Metropolitan (head of Orthodox church) head of Russian church
    • Russia separate from Western European trends
      • No trade, Renaissance/Reform., etc.
  • Attempted to conquer Europe
    • Hungary in 1240
    • Raids in Eastern Europe never good
interregional trade and exchange the mongols1
Interregional Trade and Exchange: The Mongols
    • Mongol women were more free
      • No footbinding, free movement, etc.
      • Neo-Confucianism limited rights towards end of dynasty
    • Scholars/artisans from other societies used
    • Foreigners welcomed: Marco Polo
    • Merchants rose in status
    • Piracy stopped = maritime trade increases
    • Expansion attempts
      • Japan and kamikaze winds
      • Vietnamese brief occupation
  • World items more important then efficient gov’t
  • Banditry, famine, rebellions lead to downfall
  • Peasant overthrows Mongols to forge Ming Dynasty
  • Mongols in Persia
    • Conquer Islam
    • Ilkhanate: Persia
      • Baghdad destroyed 800,000ppl. Murdered
      • Seljuk Turks in Turkey defeated
      • Ottoman Turks enter in 15th century
    • Mamluks (Slaves of Egypt) overthrow Mongols in 1260
  • Mongols in China
    • Kubilai Khan conquers S. China forming Yuan Dynasty
    • Chinese forbidden to learn Mongol language
    • Intermarriage was outlawed
    • End of Civil Service Exam
    • Religious tolerance was practiced
    • Chinese could be in gov’t
interregional trade and exchange
Interregional Trade and Exchange
    • Spread of Bubonic Plague
      • Black Death leads to fall of Yuan Dynasty
      • 25mil. Killed
      • Ended feudalism in Europe
      • 100yrs. + to recover pop. Losses and urban settlement
  • Other Nomadic Invaders/Influences
    • Timur the Lame (Tamerlane) Turk from Central Asia
      • Brutal conquests of Persia, Mesopotamia, India, and Russia
      • Death = end of nomadic invasion
  • The Mongols: Facilitators of Trade
  • Pax Mongolica:
    • Increases trade, wealth, exchange of ideas between East and West
    • Trade Route Diaspora
      • Foster cultural exchange
      • Jews on Silk Roads
      • Chinese in SE Asia
    • Long distance trade increases
      • Ibn Battuta and Marco Polo
encounter exchange in africa
Encounter/Exchange in Africa
  • Bantu Migrations
    • Sub Saharan Africa
    • Agrarian peoples
    • Ideas, Technology, and language
    • Rain forest in Nigeria outward S and E
    • 500 B.C.E. to 1000 C.E.
    • Agricultural techniques and iron working (possibly from Kush) blended with cattle-raising (other Africans)
      • Crop cultivation
    • Malay sailors: bring bananas from SE Asia to Madagascar
      • Spread in reverse pattern of Bantu migration
  • Interactions in East Africa
    • Spread of languages
    • Syncretism of Bantu and Arabic languages into Swahili
      • Major language still
  • Society and Gov’t
    • Village as basis of society
      • Stateless societies
        • Family and kinship led by by respected family member
    • Religion was animism with spirits
    • Griots: story tellers
    • Age grade: cohort group of same age who share life experiences/responsibilites
    • Women: Highly respected as child bearers
      • Share in work
    • Property in communal
      • Individ. Wealth - slaves