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Warm Up. How are rocks broken down? How are rocks formed? List the 3 types of rocks produced by the rock cycle. Geosphere. Just like the spherical layers in an onion, the Earth has multiple layers that serve different purposes. Layers by Composition

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warm up
Warm Up
  • How are rocks broken down?
  • How are rocks formed?
  • List the 3 types of rocks produced by the rock cycle.
geosphere
Geosphere
  • Just like the spherical layers in an onion, the Earth has multiple layers that serve different purposes.
  • Layers by Composition
    • The crust is less than 1% of Earth by mass. The two types are oceanic crust and continental crust.
    • The mantle is hot, ultramafic (filled with magnesium and iron) rock. It represents about 68% of Earth's mass.
    • The core is mostly iron metal. The core makes up about 31% of the Earth.
  • Layers by Mechanical Properties
    • The lithosphere is composed of both the crust and the portion of the upper mantle and behaves as a brittle, rigid solid.
    • The asthenosphere is partially molten upper mantle material and
lesson 2 the rock cycle

Lesson 2:The Rock Cycle

How rocks are created and destroyed……then created again.

key terms
Key Terms
  • Igneous
  • Sedimentary
  • Metamorphic
  • Lava
  • Magma
  • Foliation
  • Deposition
major rock groups
Major Rock Groups
  • Igneous
    • Formed when rocks melt into magma or lava and then cool
      • Intrusive: (plutonic) slow cooling and crystallization; when magma within the lithosphere
      • Extrusive: (volcanic) quick cooling at the surface; when lava cools on the surface of the lithosphere
slide8

Obsidian is a dark-colored volcanic glass that forms from the very rapid cooling of molten rock material. It cools so rapidly that crystals do not form.

major rock groups1
Major Rock Groups

Sedimentary

Formed at the Earth’s surface when other rocks are weathered, eroded, deposited,

Clastic (Mineral Fragments or grains, clays)

Chemical (crystalline chemical/biochemical precipitates)

9

about metamorphic rocks
About Metamorphic Rocks…
  • Metamorphic is Greek for…
    • change in form

http://www.yourdictionary.com/images/main.metamorphosis.jpg

major rock groups2
Major Rock Groups

Metamorphic

Changed by pressure, temperature and fluids.

When rocks bend or partially melt due to strong forces in the lithosphere

Do not melt

11

classification of metamorphic rocks
Classification of Metamorphic Rocks…
  • Foliated…
    • wavylayers and bands that are caused by minerals with flat crystals that form long axes perpendicular to the pressure

Gneiss

Schist

Slate

slide13

IGNEOUS

Crystallization

MAGMA

slide14

IGNEOUS

Plutonic

Crystallization

MAGMA

slide15

Weathering

Volcanic

IGNEOUS

Plutonic

Crystallization

Uplift

MAGMA

slide16

SEDIMENT

SEDIMENT

Weathering

Volcanic

IGNEOUS

Plutonic

Crystallization

Uplift

MAGMA

slide17

Erosion

SEDIMENT

Weathering

Transport

Deposition

Volcanic

IGNEOUS

Plutonic

SEDIMENTARY

Crystallization

Uplift

MAGMA

slide18

Erosion

SEDIMENT

Weathering

Transport

Deposition

Volcanic

IGNEOUS

Plutonic

SEDIMENTARY

Crystallization

Uplift

MAGMA

slide19

Erosion

SEDIMENT

Weathering

Transport

Deposition

Volcanic

IGNEOUS

Plutonic

SEDIMENTARY

Increased P&T

METAMORPHIC

Crystallization

Burial

Uplift

MAGMA

slide20

Erosion

SEDIMENT

Weathering

Transport

Deposition

Volcanic

IGNEOUS

Plutonic

Can you see

any shortcuts?

SEDIMENTARY

Increased P&T

METAMORPHIC

Crystallization

Melting

Burial

Uplift

MAGMA

slide21

Erosion

SEDIMENT

Weathering

Transport

Deposition

Volcanic

IGNEOUS

Plutonic

SEDIMENTARY

Increased P&T

METAMORPHIC

Crystallization

Melting

Burial

Uplift

MAGMA

slide22

In Conclusion…

  • The rock cycle demonstrates the relationships among the three major rock groups
  • It is powered by the interior heat of the Earth
  • As well as earth’s momentum and…
  • The energy from the sun
  • It involves processes on the Earth’s surface as well as the Earth’s interior
  • It connects the “hydrologic cycle” with the “tectonic cycle”.
slide24

Erosion

SEDIMENT

Weathering

Transport

Deposition

Volcanic

IGNEOUS

Plutonic

SEDIMENTARY

Increased P&T

METAMORPHIC

Crystallization

Melting

Burial

Uplift

MAGMA

the rock cycle
The Rock Cycle…
  • How are igneous rocks formed?
    • By melting, cooling, and crystallization
  • What happens to igneous rocks that undergo weathering and erosion?
    • They become sediments
  • How do sediments become sedimentary rocks?
    • By deposition, burial, compaction, and cementation
the rock cycle continued
The Rock Cycle (continued)…
  • What forces cause sedimentary rocks to be transformed into metamorphic rocks?
    • Heat and pressure – without melting!
  • How can metamorphic rock be transformed into igneous rock?
    • By melting, cooling and crystallization of magma
  • How can sandstone be transformed into sediment?
    • By erosion
the rock cycle a diagram
The Rock Cycle – A Diagram

http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/rock.html

http://www.learner.org/interactives/rockcycle/diagram.html